Flashcards in Neuroscience Deck (108):
Everything psychological—every idea, every mood, every urge is --
Psychologists working from a -- study the links between biology and behavior.
Humans are -- systems in which biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact to influence behavior.
Mind located in spherical head
Mind found in heart
The mind (spirit) and brain were linked in the pineal body
Phrenology revealed mental abilities and character traits
Despite initial acceptance of Franz Gall’s speculations, bumps on the skull tell us nothing about the brain’s --.
Though they are not the functions Gall proposed, different parts of the brain do control different aspects of --,
Nerve cells conduct electricity and communicate through -- across tiny separating gaps
The adaptive brain is wired by --
Neurons are the elementary components of the nervous system—the body’s -- electrochemical system.
Neurons receive signals through branching -- and send signals through its axons.
Some axons are encased in a -- which enables faster transmission.
-- provide myelin and support, nourish, and protect neurons.
These also play a role in thinking and learning.
If a combined signal received by a neuron exceeds a --, the neuron fires, transmitting an electrical impulse down its axon through a chemical- to-electricity process.
The neuron’s reaction is an -- process.
axon passes -- away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
neural impulse, the electrical signal traveling down the axon like a wave
-- of axon form junctions with other cells
1. Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge. If strong enough, this produces -- and an action potential.
2. This depolarization produces another -- a little farther along the axon.
As the action potential continues speedily down the axon, the first section has now completely --.
The neuron receives signals from other neurons;
some are telling it to fire and some are telling it not to fire.
Neurotransmitters travel -- pathways in the brain and may influence specific behaviors and emotions.
-- affects muscle action, learning, and memory.
-- are natural opiates released in response to pain and exercise.
Drugs and other chemicals affect brain chemistry at -- (or via upstream mechanisms)
Molecule that increases a receptor’s action
Molecule that inhibits or blocks a receptor’s action
something that binds to a receptor
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion (Oversupply linked to schizophrenia. Undersupply linked to tremors and loss of motor control in Parkinson’s disease.)
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (Undersupply linked to depression. Some drugs that raise serotonin levels are used to treat depression.)
Helps control alertness and arousal (Undersupply can depress mood)
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter (Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.)
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory (Oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures, which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food).
Body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems
Brain and spinal cord are body’s decision maker
Sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body for gathering and transmitting information
Adult brain has about -- neurons
Brain accounts for about 2 percent of body weight and uses -- of energy
brain weighs about
Near -- information storage ability
Neural networks and pathways govern -- through highly efficient electrochemical information system
The endocrine system is a set of glands that secretes -- into the bloodstream.
The -- is the master gland that influences hormone release by other glands, including the adrenal glands.
In an intricate feedback system, the brain’s -- influences the pituitary gland, which influences other glands, which release hormones and influence the brain.
What do phrenology and psychology’s biological perspective have in common?
- They share a focus on the links between the brain and behavior. Phrenology faded because it had not scientific basis — skull bumps don’t reveal mental traits and abilities
How does our nervous system allow us to experience the difference between a slap and a tap on the back?
- Stronger stimuli (slap) cause more neurons to fire and to fire more frequently than happens with weaker stimuli (the tap)
What bodily changes does your ANS direct before and after you give an important speech?
Responding to this challenge, your ANS sympathetic division will arouse you. It accelerates your heartbeat, raises your blood pressure and blood sugar, slows your digestion and cools you with perspiration. After you give your speech, your ANS parasympathetic division will reverse these effects
How are the nervous and endocrine systems alike, how are they different?
- Both of these communication systems produce chemical molecules that act on the body’s receptors to influence our behavior and emotions. The endocrine system, which secretes hormones into the bloodstream, delivers its messages much more slowly than the speedy nervous system, and the effects of the endocrine system’s messages tend to linger much longer than those of the nervous system
EEG has -- spatial resolution
tracks successive images of brain tissue to show brain function
tracks radioactive glucose to reveal brain activity
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to show brain anatomy
older brain structures are -- complex brain in primitive vertebrates handle basic survival functions
older brain structures are -- complex brain in advanced mammals (including humans) contain new brain systems built on the old
--, including the medulla and pons, is an extension of your spinal cord.
-- is attached to the top of the brainstem
-- passes through the thalamus and brainstem
Is oldest and
is located at base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Sits above medulla
and helps coordinate movement
Nerves from one side of the brain are mostly linked to the body’s -- side.
Involves nerve network running through the brainstem and thalamus; plays an important role in controlling arousal
Is area at the top of the brainstem; directs sensory messages to cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Aids in judgment of time, sound, and texture discrimination and emotional control
cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movement and --
Helps process and store information outside of awareness (posture, balance)
In what brain region would damage be most likely to
leave you in a coma -
In what brain region would damage be most likely to disrupt your ability to hear and taste
In what brain region would damage be most likely to disrupt your ability to skip rope
In what brain region would damage be most likely to cut off the very breath and heartbeat of life
Electrical stimulation of a cat's amygdala provokes angry reactions. Which autonomic nervous system division is activated by such stimulations?
consists of 2 almond shaped neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
neural structure lying below the thalamus
directs several maintenance activities
hypothalamus helps govern -- via pituitary gland and is linked to motivated/reward behavior
Each hemisphere has four lobes:
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Which area of the human brain is most similar to that of less complex animals?
Which part of the human brain distinguished us most from less complex animals?
The visual cortex of the -- at the rear of
your brain receives input from your eyes.
The auditory cortex, in your —(above your ears) receives information from your ears.
association areas of the cortex are found in --
all four lobes
damage to association areas results in -- losses
association areas are important because they are involved in -- such as interpreting, integrating, and acting on info processed in other areas
higher mental functions
ability to modify itself after damage
If one hemisphere is damaged early in life, other will assume by reorganizing or -- new pathways
plasticity -- later in life
brain mends itself by forming new -- through which neurogenesis, as well as immune and repair functions from glial cells
-- aims to rewire brains and improve dexterity of brain-damaged people
Blindness or deafness make -- brain areas available for other uses
TMS, tDCS, and related stimulation methods
this large band of neural fibers connects the two cortices
Isolated by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
split brain hemisphere
Data received by either hemisphere are quickly transmitted to the other side, across the corpus callosum.
This information sharing does not take place.
severed corpus callosum brain
Each hemisphere performs distinct functions. Humans have unified brains with -- parts.
-- hemisphere is good at making quick, exact interpretations of language
-- hemisphere excels in making inferences, modulating speech, and facilitating self-awareness
verbally reports seeing the portion of the word transmitted to the -- hemisphere
but indicates that she saw the portion of the word transmitted to her -- hemisphere
If we flash a red light to the right hemisphere of a person with a split brain, and flash a green light to the left hemisphere, will each observe its own color?
Will the person be aware that the colors differ? What will the person verbally report seeing?
Nearly 90 percent of people are right-handed and process speech primarily in -- hemisphere.
Prevalence of right-handers suggests a genetic or -- influence.