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Psych 10 > Neuroscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroscience Deck (108):
1

Everything psychological—every idea, every mood, every urge is --

biological

2

Psychologists working from a -- study the links between biology and behavior.

biological perspective

3

Humans are -- systems in which biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact to influence behavior.

biopsychosocial

4

Mind located in spherical head

Plato

5

Mind found in heart

Aristotle

6

The mind (spirit) and brain were linked in the pineal body

Descartes

7

Phrenology revealed mental abilities and character traits

Gall

8

Despite initial acceptance of Franz Gall’s speculations, bumps on the skull tell us nothing about the brain’s --.

underlying functions

9

Though they are not the functions Gall proposed, different parts of the brain do control different aspects of --,

behavior

10

Nerve cells conduct electricity and communicate through -- across tiny separating gaps

chemical messages

11

The adaptive brain is wired by --

experience

12

Neurons are the elementary components of the nervous system—the body’s -- electrochemical system.

speedy

13

Neurons receive signals through branching -- and send signals through its axons.

dendrites

14

Some axons are encased in a -- which enables faster transmission.

myelin sheath,

15

-- provide myelin and support, nourish, and protect neurons.

Glial cells

16

These also play a role in thinking and learning.

Glial cells

17

If a combined signal received by a neuron exceeds a --, the neuron fires, transmitting an electrical impulse down its axon through a chemical- to-electricity process.

minimum threshold

18

The neuron’s reaction is an -- process.

all-or- none

19

axon passes -- away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

messages

20

neural impulse, the electrical signal traveling down the axon like a wave

action potential

21

-- of axon form junctions with other cells

terminal branches

22

1. Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge. If strong enough, this produces -- and an action potential.

depolarization

23

2. This depolarization produces another -- a little farther along the axon.

action potential

24

As the action potential continues speedily down the axon, the first section has now completely --.

recharged

25

The neuron receives signals from other neurons;

some are telling it to fire and some are telling it not to fire.

26

Neurotransmitters travel -- pathways in the brain and may influence specific behaviors and emotions.

designated

27

-- affects muscle action, learning, and memory.

Acetylcholine (ACh)

28

-- are natural opiates released in response to pain and exercise.

Endorphins

29

Drugs and other chemicals affect brain chemistry at -- (or via upstream mechanisms)

synapses

30

Molecule that increases a receptor’s action

agonist

31

Molecule that inhibits or blocks a receptor’s action

antagonist

32

something that binds to a receptor

ligand

33

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion (Oversupply linked to schizophrenia. Undersupply linked to tremors and loss of motor control in Parkinson’s disease.)

dopamine

34

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (Undersupply linked to depression. Some drugs that raise serotonin levels are used to treat depression.)

serotonin

35

Helps control alertness and arousal (Undersupply can depress mood)

Norepinephrine

36

A major inhibitory neurotransmitter (Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.)

GABA

37

A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory (Oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures, which is why some people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food).

glutamate

38

Body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems

nervous system

39

Brain and spinal cord are body’s decision maker

CNS

40

Sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body for gathering and transmitting information

PNS

41

Adult brain has about -- neurons

86 billion

42

Brain accounts for about 2 percent of body weight and uses -- of energy

20 percent

43

brain weighs about

3 lbs

44

Near -- information storage ability

infinite

45

Neural networks and pathways govern -- through highly efficient electrochemical information system

reflexes

46

The endocrine system is a set of glands that secretes -- into the bloodstream.

hormones

47

The -- is the master gland that influences hormone release by other glands, including the adrenal glands.

pituitary

48

In an intricate feedback system, the brain’s -- influences the pituitary gland, which influences other glands, which release hormones and influence the brain.

hypothalamus

49

What do phrenology and psychology’s biological perspective have in common?

- They share a focus on the links between the brain and behavior. Phrenology faded because it had not scientific basis — skull bumps don’t reveal mental traits and abilities

50

How does our nervous system allow us to experience the difference between a slap and a tap on the back?

- Stronger stimuli (slap) cause more neurons to fire and to fire more frequently than happens with weaker stimuli (the tap)

51

What bodily changes does your ANS direct before and after you give an important speech?

Responding to this challenge, your ANS sympathetic division will arouse you. It accelerates your heartbeat, raises your blood pressure and blood sugar, slows your digestion and cools you with perspiration. After you give your speech, your ANS parasympathetic division will reverse these effects

52

How are the nervous and endocrine systems alike, how are they different?

- Both of these communication systems produce chemical molecules that act on the body’s receptors to influence our behavior and emotions. The endocrine system, which secretes hormones into the bloodstream, delivers its messages much more slowly than the speedy nervous system, and the effects of the endocrine system’s messages tend to linger much longer than those of the nervous system

53

EEG has -- spatial resolution

poor

54

tracks successive images of brain tissue to show brain function

fMRI

55

tracks radioactive glucose to reveal brain activity

PET

56

uses magnetic fields and radio waves to show brain anatomy

MRI

57

older brain structures are -- complex brain in primitive vertebrates handle basic survival functions

less

58

older brain structures are -- complex brain in advanced mammals (including humans) contain new brain systems built on the old

more

59

--, including the medulla and pons, is an extension of your spinal cord.

brainstem

60

-- is attached to the top of the brainstem

thalamus

61

-- passes through the thalamus and brainstem

reticular formation

62

Is oldest and
innermost brain
region

brainstem

63

is located at base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

medulla

64

Sits above medulla
and helps coordinate movement

pons

65

Nerves from one side of the brain are mostly linked to the body’s -- side.

opposite

66

Involves nerve network running through the brainstem and thalamus; plays an important role in controlling arousal

reticular formation

67

Is area at the top of the brainstem; directs sensory messages to cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

thalamus

68

Aids in judgment of time, sound, and texture discrimination and emotional control

cerebellum

69

cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movement and --

life-sustaining functions

70

Helps process and store information outside of awareness (posture, balance)

cerebellum

71

In what brain region would damage be most likely to
leave you in a coma -

reticular formation

72

In what brain region would damage be most likely to disrupt your ability to hear and taste

thalamus

73

In what brain region would damage be most likely to disrupt your ability to skip rope

cerebellum

74

In what brain region would damage be most likely to cut off the very breath and heartbeat of life

medulla

75

Electrical stimulation of a cat's amygdala provokes angry reactions. Which autonomic nervous system division is activated by such stimulations?

sympathetic division

76

consists of 2 almond shaped neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

amygdala

77

neural structure lying below the thalamus

hypothalamus

78

directs several maintenance activities

hypothalamus

79

hypothalamus helps govern -- via pituitary gland and is linked to motivated/reward behavior

endocrine system

80

Each hemisphere has four lobes:

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

81

Which area of the human brain is most similar to that of less complex animals?

brainstem

82

Which part of the human brain distinguished us most from less complex animals?

cerebral cortex

83

The visual cortex of the -- at the rear of
your brain receives input from your eyes.

occipital lobes

84

The auditory cortex, in your —(above your ears) receives information from your ears.

temporal lobes

85

association areas of the cortex are found in --

all four lobes

86

damage to association areas results in -- losses

different

87

association areas are important because they are involved in -- such as interpreting, integrating, and acting on info processed in other areas

higher mental functions

88

ability to modify itself after damage

plasticity

89

If one hemisphere is damaged early in life, other will assume by reorganizing or -- new pathways

building

90

plasticity -- later in life

diminishes

91

brain mends itself by forming new -- through which neurogenesis, as well as immune and repair functions from glial cells

neurons

92

-- aims to rewire brains and improve dexterity of brain-damaged people

Constraint-induced therapy

93

Blindness or deafness make -- brain areas available for other uses

unused

94

plasticity-inducing therapies

mindfulness/meditation
neurofeedback/biofeedback
TMS, tDCS, and related stimulation methods

95

this large band of neural fibers connects the two cortices

corpus callosum

96

Isolated by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

split brain hemisphere

97

Data received by either hemisphere are quickly transmitted to the other side, across the corpus callosum.

intact brain

98

This information sharing does not take place.

severed corpus callosum brain

99

Each hemisphere performs distinct functions. Humans have unified brains with -- parts.

specialized

100

-- hemisphere is good at making quick, exact interpretations of language

Left

101

-- hemisphere excels in making inferences, modulating speech, and facilitating self-awareness

Right

102

verbally reports seeing the portion of the word transmitted to the -- hemisphere

left

103

but indicates that she saw the portion of the word transmitted to her -- hemisphere

right

104

If we flash a red light to the right hemisphere of a person with a split brain, and flash a green light to the left hemisphere, will each observe its own color?

YES

105

Will the person be aware that the colors differ? What will the person verbally report seeing?

no, green

106

Nearly 90 percent of people are right-handed and process speech primarily in -- hemisphere.

left

107

Prevalence of right-handers suggests a genetic or -- influence.

prenatal

108

Pros and cons of left-handedness seem about --

equal