Neuroscience Study Guide #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroscience Study Guide #2 Deck (78):

What are some brain imaging techniques

1. Computed Tomography Scan (CT Scan)
2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
3. Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
4. Diffusion Tensor MRI


What is CT scan

uses a series of x-rays passed through the head and shows the structure but not function


What is PET scan

detects radioactive material (oxygen, fluorine, carbon, and nitrogen)


What is an fMRI

uses radio frequency to detect function - can also provide anatomical view


What is a diffusion tensor MRI

monitors the movement of the water in the brain and proved novel, histological, and anatomical information about tissue structure, composition, architecture, and organization


what is the structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres

corpus colosseum connects the brain (white matter)


what is the structure that separates the two cerebral hemispheres

separated by longitudinal fissure


what is the functions of the right hemisphere

holistic thought, intuition, creativity, art and music


what is the functions of the left cerebral hemisphere

analytic thought, logic, language, science and math


what are the four anatomical divisions of the cerebral hemispheres

frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes


what is the cerebral cortex and its functions in general

- gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres is called the cortex
- it enables sensation, communication, memory, understanding and voluntary movements


what are the three types of functional areas in the cerebral cortex

1. motor areas: control voluntary movement
2. sensory areas; conscious awareness of sensation
3. association areas: integrate diverse information


the cerebral white matter and its function

-beneath the cerebral cortex
- contrains bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that connect the cerebral cortex with other parts of the nervous system


what are the three types of pathways in the cerebral white matter

1. commissures
2. association fibers
3. projection fibers


what are commissures

connect corresponding gray areas of two hemispheres


association fibers

connect different parts of the same hemisphere


projection fibers

enter the hemispheres from lower or spinal cord centers


what are the general functions of the motor and association areas of the frontal lobes

- motor areas control movements of voluntary skeletal muscles
- association areas carry on higher intellectual processes of concentrating, planning, complex problem solving and judging the consequences of behavior


what are the functions of the sensory and association areas of the parietal lobes

- sensory areas provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain involving the skin
- association areas function in understanding speech and in using words to express thoughts and feelings. they also help with interpretation of sensory information
- sensory and motor areas for the same part of body are juxtaposed so one can feel what one is doing


what are the functions of the sensory and association areas of the temporal lobes

- sensory areas are responsible for hearing
- association areas interpret sensory experiences and remember visual scenes, music and other complex sensory patterns


what are the general functions of the sensory and association areas of the occipital lobes

- sensory are responsible for vision
- association ares combine visual images with other sensory experiences


the two ares of language, their locations, and their functions

- brocas area: speech preparation and production
- wernicke's area: language comprehension and word analysis


the basal ganglia and their major function

- masses of gray matter found deep within the cerebral white matter
- help coordinate planned movement and also unconscious activities such riding bicycle
- severely affected in parkinson's disease


the limbic system and its function

- several connected brain regions that produced emotional feelings: includes amygdala, cingulate gyrus (anterior nucleus of the thalamus), hippocampus, and hypothalamus


major function of the hippocampus

c-shaped region located deep in the cerebrum; important in learning and establishing new memories


major functions of the amygdala

large clump of gray matter on each side of the brain that deals mainly with anger, danger, and fear responses


major functions for the cingulate gyrus

plays role in expressing emotions via gestures and resolving conflict


what are emotions

evaluative, personal, reaction to things and events


what are expressions

anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise


what are positive emotions

involves the nucleus accumbens: excitement


what are negative emotions

involves amygdala and insula: fear


what are the two stages of memory

1. short term memory
2. long term memory


short term memory

- a fleeting memory of the events that continually happen
- last seconds to hours
- limited to 7 or 8 pieces of information


long term memory

limitless capacity


what is memory affected by

- emotional state: learning is best when alert, motivated and aroused
- rehearsal: repeating or rehearsing enhances memory
- association: associating new with old memories enhances memory
- automatic memory: subconscious information stored directly in long-term


what is the principle of memory

- storage: occurs in stage and is continually changing
- processing: accomplished mostly by the hippocampus
- memory traces: chemical or structural changes that encode memory


categories of memory

- fact memory
- skill memory


fact memory entails learning explicit information

- related to our conscious thoughts and or language ability
- is sotred with the context tin which it is learned


fact memory involves

- hippocampus and amygdala
- specific areas of the thalamus and hypothalamus
- association areas of the frontal cotex


skill memory information

- less conscious than fact memory and involves motor activities
- it is acguired through practice
- skill memories do not retain the context in which they were learned


skill memory involves:

- motor cortex
- basal ganglia
- cerebellum


the major functions of the thalamus

- relay station for sensory information
- afferent impulses from all senses converge and synapse in the thalamus
- impulses of similar function are sorted out, edited and relayed as a group
- all sensory information going to the cerebral cortex pass through the thalamus
- plays a key role in mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory


what are the major functions of the hypothalamus

- located below the thalamus and caps the brainstem
- regulates blood pressure, rate and for of heartbeat, digestive tract, rate and depth of breathing, and may other visceral activities


what does the thalamus do

- secretes melatonin
- helps sleep regulation, sleep wake cycles, and moods


the hormone secreted by the pineal gland and its major roles

- secretes melatonin
- helps sleep regulation, sleep wake cycles, and moods


the role of the brainstem

- controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival
- provides for tracts between higher and lower brains


what are the three regions of the brainstem

- midbrain
- pons
- medulla



- contains myelinated nerve fibers that join lower parts of brainstem and spinal cord with higher parts of the brain
- includes gray matter that serves as a reflex centers


what are some midbrains reflex centers

- Corpora quadrigemina
- red nucleus



- contain nerve fibers that connect the brain centers and the spinal cord.
- relay impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum
- several nuclei of the pons relay sensory impulses from peripheral nerves to higher brain centers
- other nuclei function with the medulla to regulate the rate and depth of breathing



- contains nuclei that control vital visceral activities:
a) cardiac center: adjusts force and rate of heart contraction
b) vasomotor center: controls vessel constriction (blood pressure)
c) respiratory centers: control rate and depth of breathing
- associated with sneezing, coughing, swallowing, and vomiting (injuries here are fatal)


role of the two major nuclei of the midbrain

-Corpora quadrigemina: contain visual and auditory reflexes responsible for moving the head to see or hear more distinctly.
-Red nucleus: communicate with spinal cord and cerebellum provide reflexes that maintain posture.


the three centers of the medulla that control vital visceral activities and their roles

- cardiac center: adjusts force and rate of heart contraction
- vasomotor center: controls vessel constriction
- respiratory centers: control rate and depth of breathing


non vital reflexes controlled by the medulla

coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting


the reticular formation and its major functions

- complex network of nerve fibers with tiny islands of gray matter scattered throughout the medulla, pons, and midbrain
- allows the cortex to concentrate on important information
-functions as reticular activating system by sending impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert
-decreased activity in the reticular formation results in sleep
- if this was damaged, you would be in a coma


the two types of sleep



slow wave sleep

- occurs when very tired
- reflects decreasing activity of reticular formation
- restful, dreamless, and accompanied by reduced blood pressure and respiratory rate
- may range from light to heavy and last from 70-90 minutes


rapid eye movement sleep

- also called paradoxical sleep because some brain areas are active
- heart and respiratory rates are irregular
- vital signs increase
- the eyes can be seen rapidly moving beneath the eyelids
- skeletal muscles
- most dreaming takes place during REM
- last from 5-10 minutes and alternate with slow wave sleep


examples demonstrating the importance of sleep

- slow wave sleep is presumed to be the restorative stage
- deprived can make you moody and depressed
-daily sleep requirements decline with age


the three types of sleep disorders

- narcolepsy: capsing abruptly into sleep from awake state
- insomnia: can't sleep
- sleep apena: temporary cessation of breathing during sleep


the major (sensory and motor) functions of the cerebellum

- integrate sensory information concerning the position of body parts (proprioceptive information)
- provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
- coordinates muscle activities and maintains posture
- people with concussions


the autonomic nervous system and its major functions

- motor division of the PNS that functions independently and continuously, w/o conscious effort
- controls visceral activities by regulating the action of smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and various glands
- oversees heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, body temp, and other visceral activities that help maintaining homeostasis
-portions of the ANS also respond during times of emotional stress and prepare the body to meet the demands of strenuous physical activity


the two divisions of the ANS and their functions

- sympathetic
- parasympathetic


sympathetic autonomic nervous system

- mobilizes body during extreme situations
- originate from the lateral horns of the first thoracic through first lumbar segments of spinal cord


parasympathetic autonomic nervous system

- maintenances and conservation of body energy
- consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves originating in the sacral region of the spinal cord


the two types of neurons composing the ANS pathways and the neurotransmitters they release

- preganglionic neuron (located in CNS): releases acetycholine
- postganglionic neuron (in ganglia, connects to effector organ or gland): acetylcholine or norepinephrine


location of ganglia in sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system

- lateral horns of the first thoracic through first lumbar segments of the spinal cord
- consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves originating in the sacral region of the spinal cord


the five components of a visceral reflex

- receptor in viscera
- sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglia
- preganglionic neuron in brain or spinal cord
- postganglionic neuron in autonomic ganglia
- visceral effector


the three levels of ANS control

- hypothalamus is the main integration center of ANS activities
- subconscious cerebral input via limbic system influences hypothalamic function
- other controls come from the cerebral cortex, the reticular formation and the spinal cord


hypothalamus activities

- controls heart activity and blood pressure
- body temperature, water balance, and endocrine activity
- emotional stages (rage, pleasure) and biological drives (hunger, thirst, sex)


general sense of the sensory system and their sensory receptors

Their receptors are distributed widely throughout the skin and other body tissues. They include touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. The density of these receptors varies, the body is not equally sensitive to stimulation


The special senses of the sensory system and their sensory organs

Their receptors are located in complex organs in relatively small areas of the body. They include vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell and taste


The five sensory receptors and their functions

1. mechanoreceptors: respond to touch, pressure, stretch, and itch
2. thermoreceptors: sensitive to changes in temperature
3. photoreceptors: respond to light energy
4. chemoreceptors: respond to chemicals
5. nociceptors: sensitive to pain-causing stimuli


the two types of pain

1. somatic: skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, bones, and joints
2. visceral pain: internal organs, from distention, smooth muscle spasm, or inadequate blood supply


referred pain and what it is due to

- pain arising from the viscera is perceived as somatic in origin
- this may be due to the fact that visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers


proprioceptors, their locations, and function

- respond to degree of stretch of organs they occupy
- found in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and mu
- constantly advise the brain of one's movemens


what needs to happen for skeletal muscles to perform normally

- golgi tendon organs must constantly inform the brain to the state of the muscle
- stretch reflexes initiated by muscle spindles maintain healthy muscle tone (stretching the muscle activates the muscle spindle, contracting the muscle reduces tension)


what is the vestibular apparatus

- has to do with balance and equilibrium
- consists of semicircular canals, which respond to motion and the utricle and saccule which respond to position changes
- contains hair cells similar that are stimulated by movement of a fluid (endolymph)
- transmit nerve impulses nerve impulses to the medulla and cerebellum via the vestibulocochlear nerve