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Chemistry Unit > New Chem Shiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in New Chem Shiz Deck (25):
1

What is a acid?


What is a base?

-a substance that donates a hydrogen ions, taste sour, turns red

-a substance that accepts hydrogen ions, taste bitter, turns blue

2

What does it mean to be a strong acid and a strong base?

- is completely converted to ions in water. More ready to accept/donate hydrogen ions

3

What does it mean to be a weak acid and a weak base?

-is partially converted to ions in water. Less ready to accept/donate hydrogen ions

4

pH scale and different substances that would be at each pH?

-1 concentrated HC1
0 battery acid
1 lemon juice
2 vinegar
3 soft drink, beer
4 tomato, coffee
5 urine, rain water
6 milk, saliva
7 pure water, blood
8 sea water
9 baking soda
10 soda
11 ammonia
12 hair remover
13 over cleaner

5

Things to know on the pH scale?

acidic goes from -1 to 6
neutral is 7
basic is 8-14

6

How is acid rain formed?

water in the atmosphere reacts w/ carbon dioxide to from carbonic acid: CO2 + H2O = H2CO3. Carbonic acid lower the pH of water. The CO2 in the atmosphere brings the pH of rainwater to 5.6. acid rain has a pH lower than 5. Its created when airborne pollutants such sulfur dioxide are absorbed. suffer dioxide is converted to suffer trioxide which reacts w/ water to from sulferic acid: 2 SO2 +o2 = SO3 +H2O = H2SO4. rain laced w/ sulfuric acid corrodes metals, paint, outside stuff.

7

Problems with acid rain?

How can we fix dis?

many rivers and lakes receiving acid rain become less capable of sustaining life.

- doing liming, prevent most of the generated sulfur dioxide & other pollutants from entering the atmosphere in the first place. shift from fossil fuels to cleaner energy sources- nuclear and solar

8

Whats oxidation? Whats the equation for that?

-the process whereby a reactant loses one or more electrons

2Na(s) = 2Na+ + 2e-

9

What is reduction? Whats the equation for that?

-the process whereby a reactant gains one or more electrons

Cl2+ 2e- = 2Cl-

10

How does a dry cell battery work?

chemicals in the paste receive electrons at the graphite stick and are reduced. The reaction for the ammonium ions is 2NH4+ (aq)+2e- = 2NH3(g) +H2(g). The cathode is always + which indicates that electrons are naturally attracted to this location. The electrons gained by chemicals at the cathode originate at the anode. For any battery the anode is always - which indicates that electrons are streaming away from this location. The anode is in the zinc cup. where zinc atoms lose electrons to form zinc ions Zn(s) = Zn2+ +(aq) +2e-. the reduction of ammonium ions produces two gases ammonia and hydrogen, that need to be removed by having them w/ zinc chloride & manganese dioxide

11

How does iron rust?

iron loses electrons to form the Fe2+ ion. Oxygen accepts these electrons and the reacts w/ water to from hydroxide ions, OH-. Iron ions & hydroxide ions combine to form iron hydroxide, Fe(OH)2, which is further oxidized by oxygen to form rust, Fe2O3. 3H2O

12

How is the burning of something and oxidation related?

-they are related because they both release energy

13

How is fractional distillation used on a industrial scale?

-the crude oil is heated in a pipe still to a temp high enough to vaporize most of its components. Hot vapor goes into the bottom of the tower. Its warmer @ the bottom and cooler @ the top of the tower. As vapor rises in tower and cools, the components condense. Hydrocarbons that have high boiling points such as tar and lubricating stocks condense first at warmer temps. Hydrocarbons that have low boiling points (gas) go to the top of the tower to condense. pipes drain the various liquid hydrocarbon fractions from the tower. Natural gas doesn't condense it remains as a gas and is collected at the top of the tower.

14

What is a hydrocarbon?

a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

15

Hydroxyl group

Class: alcohol
I
-C-OH
I

16

Phenolic group

Class: phenols
/C=C/
/ \
C C
=C - C=

17

Ester Group

class: esters

O
I I
C
/ \ I
O--C--
I

18

Amine Group

Class: Amines

I /
--C--N
I \

19

Ketone Group

Class: Ketones


O
I I
C
I / \ I
--C C--
I I

20

Ether Group

Class: Ethers

I I
--C--O--C---
I I

21

Aldehyde Group

Class: Aldehydes

O
I I
C
/ \
H

22

Amide Group

Class: Amides

O
I I
C
/ \ /
N
\

23

Carboxyl Group

Class: Carboxylic acids

O
I I
C
/ \
OH

24

Whats a polymer?

exceedingly long molecules that consist of repeating molecular units called monomers

25

How do you find polarization?

It has to be a joint molecule:
H H
\ /
C=C
/
H
you then take it and set it on top of each other.
H-C-H