Newtonian world and astrophysics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Newtonian world and astrophysics Deck (34):
1

Absolute zero

The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy.

2

Amplitude (SHM)

Maximum displacement

3

Boyle's Law

2π x frequency

4

Centripetal acceleration

For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

5

Centripetal force

An acceleration that will cause the body to follow a circular path. The acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity of the body.

6

Condition for uniform circular motion

A resultant force which acts on a body causing it to follow a circular path. The force acts perpendicular to the velocity of the body.

7

Displacement (SHM)

The resultant force acts perpendicular to the velocity

8

Frequency (SHM)`

The distance (and direction) of the body from the equilibrium position

9

Angular Frequency (SHM)

Kinetic Energy and momentum are conserved

10

Elastic Collision

The equilibrium position is the point where the resultant force on the oscillator is zero.

11

Equilibrium position (SHM)

Number of oscillations per unit time

12

Geostationary orbit

An orbit with a period of 24 hours.

13

Gravitational field strength

Gravitational force per unit mass at a point in space

14

Gravitational potential

Gravitational potential at a point is the work done in bringing a unit mass from infinity to the point.

15

Impulse of a force

Average force applied multiplied by the time over which it acts

16

Inelastic collision

Momentum is conserved. KE after the collision is less than the KE before the collision

17

Internal energy

The sum of random distribution of potential and kinetic energies of all the molecules

18

Kepler's Third Law

The cube of the planet's distance from the sun is proportional to the square of the orbital period.

19

Latent heat of fusion

The energy supplied to melt a given quantity of a solid substance to liquid

20

Latent heat of vaporisation

The energy supplied to boil given quantity of a liquid substance to gas

21

Linear momentum

The linear momentum of a body is the "product of mass and velocity"

22

Net force

The vector sum of all the forces that act upon the object

23

Newton's Law of Gravitation

The force of attraction between two given particles is inversely proportional to the square of their separation and directly proportional to the product of their masses

24

Newton's First Law

A body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force.

25

Newton's Second Law

The resultant force is directly proportional to the rate of change of momentum

26

Newton's Third Law

When an object A exerts a force on an object B, object B will exert a force of equal magnitude, of the same nature but opposite direction on object A

27

Period (circular motion)

The time take for an object to make one complete revolution

28

Period (SHM)

The time taken for the object to complete one full oscillation

29

Principle of conservation of momentum

The total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision, provided no external forces act on the system

30

Radian

One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle

31

Simple harmonic motion

A body executes simple harmonic motion when its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement form its equilibrium position and is directed towards the equilibrium position.

32

Specific heat capacity

The energy required to heat 1kg of a substance by 1K without a change of state

33

Thermal equilibrium

Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if when placed in thermal contact there is no net flow of heat energy between them

34

Uniform (gravitational) fields

The direction and strength of the field is constant throughout the considered region of space