Flashcards in Newtonian world and astrophysics Deck (34):
The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy.
2π x frequency
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
An acceleration that will cause the body to follow a circular path. The acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity of the body.
Condition for uniform circular motion
A resultant force which acts on a body causing it to follow a circular path. The force acts perpendicular to the velocity of the body.
The resultant force acts perpendicular to the velocity
The distance (and direction) of the body from the equilibrium position
Angular Frequency (SHM)
Kinetic Energy and momentum are conserved
The equilibrium position is the point where the resultant force on the oscillator is zero.
Equilibrium position (SHM)
Number of oscillations per unit time
An orbit with a period of 24 hours.
Gravitational field strength
Gravitational force per unit mass at a point in space
Gravitational potential at a point is the work done in bringing a unit mass from infinity to the point.
Impulse of a force
Average force applied multiplied by the time over which it acts
Momentum is conserved. KE after the collision is less than the KE before the collision
The sum of random distribution of potential and kinetic energies of all the molecules
Kepler's Third Law
The cube of the planet's distance from the sun is proportional to the square of the orbital period.
Latent heat of fusion
The energy supplied to melt a given quantity of a solid substance to liquid
Latent heat of vaporisation
The energy supplied to boil given quantity of a liquid substance to gas
The linear momentum of a body is the "product of mass and velocity"
The vector sum of all the forces that act upon the object
Newton's Law of Gravitation
The force of attraction between two given particles is inversely proportional to the square of their separation and directly proportional to the product of their masses
Newton's First Law
A body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force.
Newton's Second Law
The resultant force is directly proportional to the rate of change of momentum
Newton's Third Law
When an object A exerts a force on an object B, object B will exert a force of equal magnitude, of the same nature but opposite direction on object A
Period (circular motion)
The time take for an object to make one complete revolution
The time taken for the object to complete one full oscillation
Principle of conservation of momentum
The total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision, provided no external forces act on the system
One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle
Simple harmonic motion
A body executes simple harmonic motion when its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement form its equilibrium position and is directed towards the equilibrium position.
Specific heat capacity
The energy required to heat 1kg of a substance by 1K without a change of state
Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if when placed in thermal contact there is no net flow of heat energy between them