Flashcards in Newtonian world and astrophysics Deck (34):

1

## Absolute zero

### The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy.

2

## Amplitude (SHM)

### Maximum displacement

3

## Boyle's Law

### 2π x frequency

4

## Centripetal acceleration

### For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

5

## Centripetal force

### An acceleration that will cause the body to follow a circular path. The acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity of the body.

6

## Condition for uniform circular motion

### A resultant force which acts on a body causing it to follow a circular path. The force acts perpendicular to the velocity of the body.

7

## Displacement (SHM)

### The resultant force acts perpendicular to the velocity

8

## Frequency (SHM)`

### The distance (and direction) of the body from the equilibrium position

9

## Angular Frequency (SHM)

### Kinetic Energy and momentum are conserved

10

## Elastic Collision

### The equilibrium position is the point where the resultant force on the oscillator is zero.

11

## Equilibrium position (SHM)

### Number of oscillations per unit time

12

## Geostationary orbit

### An orbit with a period of 24 hours.

13

## Gravitational field strength

### Gravitational force per unit mass at a point in space

14

## Gravitational potential

### Gravitational potential at a point is the work done in bringing a unit mass from infinity to the point.

15

## Impulse of a force

### Average force applied multiplied by the time over which it acts

16

## Inelastic collision

### Momentum is conserved. KE after the collision is less than the KE before the collision

17

## Internal energy

### The sum of random distribution of potential and kinetic energies of all the molecules

18

## Kepler's Third Law

### The cube of the planet's distance from the sun is proportional to the square of the orbital period.

19

## Latent heat of fusion

### The energy supplied to melt a given quantity of a solid substance to liquid

20

## Latent heat of vaporisation

### The energy supplied to boil given quantity of a liquid substance to gas

21

## Linear momentum

### The linear momentum of a body is the "product of mass and velocity"

22

## Net force

### The vector sum of all the forces that act upon the object

23

## Newton's Law of Gravitation

### The force of attraction between two given particles is inversely proportional to the square of their separation and directly proportional to the product of their masses

24

## Newton's First Law

### A body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force.

25

## Newton's Second Law

### The resultant force is directly proportional to the rate of change of momentum

26

## Newton's Third Law

### When an object A exerts a force on an object B, object B will exert a force of equal magnitude, of the same nature but opposite direction on object A

27

## Period (circular motion)

### The time take for an object to make one complete revolution

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## Period (SHM)

### The time taken for the object to complete one full oscillation

29

## Principle of conservation of momentum

### The total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision, provided no external forces act on the system

30

## Radian

### One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle

31

## Simple harmonic motion

### A body executes simple harmonic motion when its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement form its equilibrium position and is directed towards the equilibrium position.

32

## Specific heat capacity

### The energy required to heat 1kg of a substance by 1K without a change of state

33

## Thermal equilibrium

### Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if when placed in thermal contact there is no net flow of heat energy between them

34