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Flashcards in Nicotine Addiction Deck (27)
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1

combined health risk of nicotine and alcohol increase by ___? Is it additive or synergistic?


50% synergistic

2

What are the two leading causes of death related to smoking?


lung cancer

coronary artery disease

3

HOw many chemicals are there in 1 cigarette? How many are known carcinogens?


over 4000

43 are carcinogens

4

Specifically, what does the carbon monoxide increase the risk of? How?


cardiac events

it binds to hemoglobin and changes its form to carbooxyhemoglobin which reduces the availability of Hb for O2 delivery so you get hypoxia, ischemia and heart attacks

5

WHat effect does smoking have on nitric oxide's vasodilation effects?


It reduces its vasodilation, thus reducing the threshold for acute carciovascular events

6


WHat effect does nicotine have on the elasticity of arteries?


It decreases elasticity so that they become stiff and less compliant with acute needs. It accelerates atherosclerosis

7


How does smoking increase the risk for blood clots? multiple ways...


it increases the amount of clotting factors in the blood

because of the reduced Hb you have an increase in RBCs which increases clo risk

also activates platelets

8

What effect does smoking have on cholesterol?


It increases total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL

It decreases the good cholesterol - HDL

9

What are the nitrosamines in tobacco linked to?


cancer - lung CA especially

10

How do the carcinogens in cigarettes cause cancer in general?


DNA mutations and excess cell division

11

True or false

Light cigarettes are safer for you than regular cigarettes?


false

may actually be worse because of compensation smoking

12

Currently, is there a gender difference in smoking habits?


Not really - men are slightly higher, but the gap has decreased since the 60s

women have a harder time quitting though

13

RIght now, what percent of the population smokes?


about 20%

14

What neurological system is responsible for the reinforcing effects of toacco use? With what NT?


The Mesolimbic system

dopamine pathway

15

What three brain structures are involved in the mesolimbic pathway?


ventral tegmental area

nucleus accumbens

prefrontal cortex

16

What are the 6 NTs released with tobacco use?


dopamine especially

serotonin

norepinephrine

acetylcholine

vasopressin

beta-endorphin

17

What are the two different definitions of tolerance in terms of tobacco use?


1. reduced responsiveness of drug at the site of action

2. increased number of nicotinic receptors

18

What are the withdrawal symptoms of tobacco addiction?


concentration problems

sleep problems

increased appetite and weight

negative affect

19

Why are cigarettes the most addicting form of nicotine?


because they are specially designed to give the effect of the nicotine the fastest -

the shorter the amount of time between the hit and the effect, the more addictive it is

20

If a nicotine patch gives the same amount of nicotine as a whole pack of cigarettes, how can it help people quit?


1. It takes much longer for the effect to be noticeable, so it's less reinforced than cigarettes

2. it's a gradual build up and not a bolus like a cigarette it - less addictive

21

What can the community and population do to decrease use?


tax

limit industry advertising

smoke free policies

restrict minor access

change the product

 

22

What percentage of a tax is needed to reduce demand by 4% in high income countries and 8% in middle income countries?


10%

23

What is sidestream smoke? What is mainstream smoke?


Sidestream smoke comes from the cigarette itself. Mainstream smoke is what the smoker exhales into the enironment

24

What percentage of nonsmokers in the US are exposed to secondhand smoke on a regular basis?


88%

25

Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke for just ___ minutes experience hardening of the arteries.


30 minutes!

26

secondhand smoke is the __ leading cause of preventable death in the US.


3rd

(direct smoking is the 1st)

27