combined health risk of nicotine and alcohol increase by ___? Is it additive or synergistic?
What are the two leading causes of death related to smoking?
coronary artery disease
HOw many chemicals are there in 1 cigarette? How many are known carcinogens?
43 are carcinogens
Specifically, what does the carbon monoxide increase the risk of? How?
it binds to hemoglobin and changes its form to carbooxyhemoglobin which reduces the availability of Hb for O2 delivery so you get hypoxia, ischemia and heart attacks
WHat effect does smoking have on nitric oxide's vasodilation effects?
It reduces its vasodilation, thus reducing the threshold for acute carciovascular events
WHat effect does nicotine have on the elasticity of arteries?
It decreases elasticity so that they become stiff and less compliant with acute needs. It accelerates atherosclerosis
How does smoking increase the risk for blood clots? multiple ways...
it increases the amount of clotting factors in the blood
because of the reduced Hb you have an increase in RBCs which increases clo risk
also activates platelets
What effect does smoking have on cholesterol?
It increases total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL
It decreases the good cholesterol - HDL
What are the nitrosamines in tobacco linked to?
cancer - lung CA especially
How do the carcinogens in cigarettes cause cancer in general?
DNA mutations and excess cell division
True or false
Light cigarettes are safer for you than regular cigarettes?
may actually be worse because of compensation smoking
Currently, is there a gender difference in smoking habits?
Not really - men are slightly higher, but the gap has decreased since the 60s
women have a harder time quitting though
RIght now, what percent of the population smokes?
What neurological system is responsible for the reinforcing effects of toacco use? With what NT?
The Mesolimbic system
What three brain structures are involved in the mesolimbic pathway?
ventral tegmental area
What are the 6 NTs released with tobacco use?
What are the two different definitions of tolerance in terms of tobacco use?
1. reduced responsiveness of drug at the site of action
2. increased number of nicotinic receptors
What are the withdrawal symptoms of tobacco addiction?
increased appetite and weight
Why are cigarettes the most addicting form of nicotine?
because they are specially designed to give the effect of the nicotine the fastest -
the shorter the amount of time between the hit and the effect, the more addictive it is
If a nicotine patch gives the same amount of nicotine as a whole pack of cigarettes, how can it help people quit?
1. It takes much longer for the effect to be noticeable, so it's less reinforced than cigarettes
2. it's a gradual build up and not a bolus like a cigarette it - less addictive
What can the community and population do to decrease use?
limit industry advertising
smoke free policies
restrict minor access
change the product
What percentage of a tax is needed to reduce demand by 4% in high income countries and 8% in middle income countries?
What is sidestream smoke? What is mainstream smoke?
Sidestream smoke comes from the cigarette itself. Mainstream smoke is what the smoker exhales into the enironment
What percentage of nonsmokers in the US are exposed to secondhand smoke on a regular basis?
Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke for just ___ minutes experience hardening of the arteries.
secondhand smoke is the __ leading cause of preventable death in the US.
(direct smoking is the 1st)