What is a ketone?
A carbon is double bound to an oxygen and bound to two R groups, so is not terminal. Replace -e with -one.
In a Newman Projection, when is energy highest. Lowest?
Highest when eclipsed, lowest when staggered.
What do you do when you have a chiral carbon?
Number the groups from 1-4 based on descending atomic number (highest atomic numbered group gets 1)
What does (E) mean when naming a molecule?
In a carbon-carbon double bond, the two highest priority bonds, based on highest atomic number, are on opposite sides of the bond/opposite planes, opposite sides of the imaginary dashed line in the direction of the bond.
What is the last step in naming a chiral carbon?
After selecting R or S based on numbering, check to see in which direction (wedge or dash) the highest priority group is going. If it’s pointing away, S becomes R, and R becomes S.
What does (S) mean?
Sinistral, Latin for left. When you have a chiral carbon and the groups are numbered 1-4 based in atomic number with the highest number getting 1, the direction of 1-2-3 is to the left, or counterclockwise.
What is a carboxylic acid?
A carbon is bound to an OH group, and our group, and is double bound to another oxygen. The carbonyl carbon is C1. -e +oic acid
What is an acyl halide?
A carbon is double bound to an oxygen, bound to an R group, and bound to a halide. -e +oyl “halide”
What does (R) mean?
Rectus, Latin for right, the direction of 1-2-3 on a chiral carbon is towards the right/clockwise. Ok to skip over 4 to get to 2 (1-4-2-3) is an ok order of rotation)
What is an amide?
A carbon double bound to an oxygen, bound to an R group, and bound to a nitrogen. Replace -e with -amide
What is an ester?
A carbon is single bound to one oxygen and double bound to another. It is also bound to an R group. The R group is considered the parent, and is named second, -e +oate. Whatever is coming off of the single bound oxygen is considered to be the substituent, and is named first.
What does chiral mean?
For carbon, must have four different groups coming off of it.
What is an alcohol?
An alcohol is when a carbon has an -OH group attached to it. Drop the e and replace with ol. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols are named based on the number of R groups attached to the carbon in question
What is an amine?
An amine is when a carbon is attached to an N. The primary, secondary, and tertiary nature is determined by the number of R groups attached to the NITROGEN. Drop the e and and amine.
What is an aldehyde?
A carbon is double bound to an oxygen, bound to an R group, and bound to a hydrogen (is terminal). Replace -e with -al.
What is an ether?
An ether is when you have an oxygen attached to two alkyl groups. To name, “substituent substituent ether”
What does (Z) mean when naming a molecule?
Around a carbon-carbon double bond, the two highest priority bonds (based on highest atomic number) are on the same side of the bond/same plane in chair conformation (same side of dashed line)