Non0-neoplastic dz of female reproductive tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Non0-neoplastic dz of female reproductive tract Deck (36):
1

Trichomonas structure

large flagellated protozoa

REMEMBER, IT IS AN STD

2

What are the symptoms of trichomonas infection

Yellow vaginal discharge, dyspaerunia (painful intercourse), dysuria (painful urination)

3

What will teh cervix look like during a trichomonas infection?

Inflamed like a strawberry

4

Predisposing factors to Candida infection?

Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy, Oral contraceptives

5

Presentation of candida infection?

Cottage cheese appearance of discharge, discomfort, itching

6

If an HSV II infection reactivates in pregnancy, the newborn may acquire fatal infection during passage through the birth canal

Active herpetic lesions at the time of delivery necessitate a C-section.

7

Characteristic appearance of HSC infected cells in pap smear?

cytomegaly, multi-nucleation, intra-nuclear inclusions

8

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease causes

- Gonococcus, Chlamydia, mycoplasma, enteric bacteria, strep and staph.

GMC, E, Staph Strep

9

Presentation of PID

lower abdominal pain, adnexal tenderness, prominent discomfort when the cervix is manipulated (chandelier sign)

10

Complications of PID?

ruptures of tubo-ovarian abscess, peritonitis, sepsis, infertility, bowel obstruction

11

Most common and most severe infection in women?

Gonorrhea

12

Structure of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae?

gram negative diplococcus

13

How does gonorrheal PID come about?

Spreads upward.
- Ascends from periuthral glands and perivaginal glands through the cervix and the endometrial cavity where they cause acute cervicitis and endometritis.
- Infection spreads on the mucosal surface of the fallopian tubes to the ovaries and pelvic organs

14

Most common site of ectopic pregnancy

fallopian tubes (95%)

15

Ectopic pregnancy presentation

sudden abdominal pain, shock like presentation about 6-12 weeks following a previous menstrual period.

16

Physiology of menstrual cycle slide

know it

17

During the proliferative phase, how would you characterize the endometrium?

Straight glands with psuedo-stratified epithelium.
No mucin production
Stroma is composed of spindle cells with scant cytoplasm, high mitotic rate

18

Labia major covered by

skin

19

Labia minor

non-keratinizing squamous epithelium

20

Endocervical canal lined by?

glandular epithelium

21

Upper 2/3 of the endometrum is called

zona functionalis

22

Lower 1/3 is the basal layer

of the endometrium

23

What does the trichomonas vaginalis organism look like?

Its a protozoa, looks a lot like a neutrophil swimming around

24

Gross appearance of PID

adnexa show mall like conglomerates replacing the tubes and ovaries. Inflamed tube and ovaries surrounded by fibrous tissue
The masses are composed of inflammatory exudate, necrotic debris, and fibrous tissue.
May rupture causing peritonitis/ sepsis. May also turn into a sac containing clear fluid

25

Endometrial hyperplasia

Prolonged, abnormally high estrogen stimulation without progesterone effect

26

Conditions that cause endometrial hyperplasia?

Stein-leventhal syndrome, perimenopause, estrogen tumors, obesity

27

What is the normal gland to stroma ratio

50:50

28

What is the gland to stroma ratio in endometrial hyperplasia?

DOMINATING GLANDS over stroma

29

What is a chandelier sign?

Discomfort when the cervix is manipulated...suggests PID

30

Primary infxn that causes PID?

Post-partum endometriosis, Intrauterine device, curretage

31

More common cause of PID is the introduction of organisms through sex

ok

32

What causes the infertility in PID patients

stricture of the fallopian tubes

33

Two most common causes of PID

chlamydia and gonorrhaea

34

What does the post-menopausal endometrium look like?

- inactive or simple cystic glands
- No evidence of proliferation or secretion
- Dense inactive stroma
-

35

KNOW...In hyperplasia, there is no secretion!!! If you see mucin, it is not hyperplasia

ok

36

WHen looking for hyperplasia, look for glands with no stroma between them and no secretion

ok