Noncoelomate Invertebrates- Chapter 33 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Noncoelomate Invertebrates- Chapter 33 Deck (66):
1

What are the general characteristics that all animals share?

heterotrophs
multicellular
lack a cell wall
ability to move
diverse in form
diverse in habitat
embryonic development
tissues and tissue layers


2

the hypothesis that states we came from a line of multinucleate ciliates

the multinucleate hypothesis

3

hypothesis that states we came from a line of colonial flagellates, favored by molecular systematics

colonial flagellate hypothesis

4

event that led to an enormous expansion of animal diversity 525 MYA, major phyla born

Cambrian explosion

5

What gene complex evolved from the Cambrian explosion?

Hox developmental gene

6

lack symmetry and tissues

parazoa

7

have symmetry and tissues

eumetazoa

8

two germ layers

diploblastic

9

have three germ layers

triploblastic

10

the only kind of parazoan

porifera (sponges)

11

lack defined tissue and organs, disaggregate and aggregate their cells, include sponges

Parazoa

12

include marine and freshwater species, larval sponges are free swimming, adults are anchored

sponges

13

inner layer (porifera) of specialized flagellated cells called __________ or collar cells

choanocytes

14

central layer (porifera) gelatinous protein-rich matrix called the ________, includes calcium or glass __________, fibers made of the protein _________

mesophyl
spicules
spongin

15

outer layer (porifera)

protective layer

16

porifera are filter feeders, as the choanocyte flagella draws water through numerous small _____, this process is known as _____________

pores
intracellular digestion

17

small organisms are filtered from the water, exit the sponge through the _______

osculum

18

porifera reproduce asexually through _______, and reproduce sexually through the meeting of egg and sperm

fragmentation

19

Does parazoa have any true tissues?

no

20

Does eumetazoa have any true tissues?

yes

21

all other animals aside from porifera, 2 or 3 layers, distinct and well defined tissues, irreversible differentiation for most cell types

eumetazoa

22

Parazoa has___ symmerty, eumetazoa has ________ symmerty

no
radial

23

include Cnidaria and Ctenophora, branch out before bilateria, have radial symmetry and only two germ layers

diploblasts

24

outer layer, similar to the ectoderm

epidermis

25

inner layer, similar to the endoderm

gastrodermis

26

in-between the epidermis and and the gastrodermis, non-cellular and jelly

mesoglea

27

nearly all marine, bodies have distinct tissue but no organs, exclusively carnivorous

cnidarians

28

cnidarians can be either ______ or _________

polyp
medusa

29

cylindrical and sessile

polyp

30

umbrella-shaped and free-living

medusa

31

Some cnidarians can alternate between polyp or medusae

True

32

polyps can reproduce sexually or asexually through _______, medusae reproduce sexually and form _______________

budding
free-swimming larvae

33

digestion begins with fragmentation in the gastrovascular cavity

extracellular digestion

34

cnidarians have no _________, _________, or __________ systems

circulatory, respiratory, or excretory

35

specialized cells on the epidermis of cnidarian

nematocytes

36

special type of organelle in cnidarians that contains a small but powerful harpoon, used for food acquisition and defense

nematocyst

37

What are the 5 classes of cnidarians?

(1) Hydrozoa (hydroids)
(2) Anthozoa (corals)
(3) Cubozoa (box jellyfish)
(4) Scyphozoa (jellyfish)
(5) Staurozoa (star jellies)

38

a small phylum whose members are known as comb jellies, sea walnuts, or sea gooseberries, propel themselves with eight rows of fused cilia, capture prey with a colloblast

ctenophora

39

ctenophora is more complex than cnidarians because they show the beginnings of ________ traits

bilaterian

40

bilaterally symetrical, triploblastic

bilateria

41

right and left halves are mirror images, only mid-saggital plane bisects the animal into 2 equal halves

bilateral symmetry

42

What are the 2 main advantages of bilateral symmetry?

cephalization for brain area and greater mobility

43

inner tissue layer, gut lining

endoderm

44

outer tissue layer, skin and nervous tissue

ectoderm

45

middle tissue layer, muscle and and bone

mesoderm

46

no body cavity

acoelomates

47

body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm

pseudocoelomates

48

body cavity entirely within the mesoderm

coelomates

49

flatworms that are soft bodied animals, many parasitic, others free-living, acoelomates, move by ciliated epithelial cells, have developed musculature

platyhelminthes

50

platyhelminthes have a digestive cavity with only ____ opening and they cannot feed continuously

one

51

the excretory system of platy's contains a network of fine tubules, ______ cells are located on the side branches (isolate branches), function similar to kidney, wastes are excreted into the gut and eliminated through the mouth

flame

52

platy's have no ________ system

circulatory

53

platy's have a ______ nervous system with an eyespot and no brain

simple

54

platy's undergo sexual reproduction and are _________

hermaphroditic

55

What are the 3 classes of Platy's?

(1) Turbellaria (free-living)
(2) Trematoda (parasitic)
(3) Cercomeromorpha (Parasitic)

56

free living flat worm, freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments

turbellaria

57

include flukes, ecto or endo parasites in the bodies of animals, use anchors/hooks/suckers, include Schistosoma

trematoda

58

tapeworms, live as parasites within the bodies of other animals, most species occur in the intestines of vertebrates, absorb nutrients through their skin

cercomeromorpha

59

What are the 3 zones of cercomeromorpha?

(1) scolex- attachment organ
(2) neck- unsegmented
(3) proglottids- repetitive sections

60

bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented roundworms, marine, freshwater, or soil habitats

nematodes

61

nematodes are __________ and lack a defined _________ system

pseudocoelomates
circulatory

62

nematodes are covered with a thick flexible cuticle, they are also ________ because they molt their cuticle

ecdysozoans

63

nematodes have piercing organs in their mouth called ________

stylets

64

nematodes pass food through the mouth their the sucking action of the ________

pharynx

65

nematodes are active hunters and parasites to both _______ and ________

plants and larger animals

66

wheel animals, pseudocoelomates, spiralia, complex internal organs, thick cilia called a _______ that are used for transport and funneling food

corona