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Flashcards in Normal Tissue Consequences Deck (70)
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1

osteonecrosis

bone death
- in adults after 60Gy (femoral head)

2

In children, you have to treat the growth plate ____.

evenly

3

The pelvis contains about ___% of functioning bone marrow in adults.

25%

4

Genital Organs:
Permanent Sterility unavoidable at

1500-2000 cGy

5

What is one way to get ovaries out of the radiation field?

ovaries can be surgically moved

6

Testes are less often exposed because

1. can remove teste
2. treat pelvic lymph node

7

what percent of the dose reaches the teste?

10% from internal scatter

8

by how much can you reduce scatter to the testes if a shield is used?

1-3%

9

what kind of cells do testes house?

leukemic

10

scar tissue can destroy upper vagina and ___

lose patency

11

should avoid irradiation _______ weeks after surgery

6-8 weeks

12

In females, _____ is rare , but can have it from recurrence of tumor

stenosis

13

normal capacity of bladder

400cc

14

fistulas form at ____ doses

high

15

enteritis

inflammation of the intestine

16

What is one reason to stop treatment of the small intestine

severe acute enteritis

17

What part of the large intestine should be avoided at all costs?

anus because of the sphincter

18

in the rectum, stenosis can ____

make you have the feeling to deficate

19

If 75% or more of the liver receives 3000-3500, there is a great risk of ____

liver failure

20

Liver doses can cause ___

acute hepatitis

21

kidney causes ___

high BP

22

Adrenal glands: TD 5/5?

Don't know what it would be because it is right on top of the kidney.

23

pancreas

"silent killer"

24

spleen

can cause alterations in the blood count and immune system

25

Thorax

receives more radiation than any other area of the body

26

How can pneumonitis be treated?

steroids, relieve symptoms

27

resp system:
can develop radiation fibrosis

increases risk of infection

28

chemo+radiation =

more sensitive

29

higher daily doses of radiation=

more severe pain

30

hypofractionization

higher dose, less fractions

31

hyperfractionization

lower dose, more fractions

32

Effects of rad of esophagus

loses elasticity

33

myocardium

interstitial fibrosis
-reduces cardiac function=myocardial infarction

34

acute pericarditis

may appear 1 year post treatment
anterior chest pain, sob, low grade fever

35

chronic pericarditits

can impede filling affect which can reduce cardiac output

36

2 cardio toxic chemo drugs

doxirubicin
adriamycin

37

chemo drugs along with rad therapy can cause

CHF

38

late reaction of rad treatment to ribs

fractures

39

treating breast before puberty can

hinder development

40

moderate skin erythema

dry desquamation, mild tenderness

41

treatment can make the breast ___&_____

smaller and harder
skin changes

42

brachial plexus:
takes about ____for side effects to show up

1 year or more

43

brachial plexus

bundle of nerves around the shoulder
pass through supraclavicular region

44

how long does it take for spinal cord injuries to show up post rad

8-48 months

45

Lhermittes syndrome

electrical shocks going down legs (weeks after rad treatment)

46

Head and neck treatments

harder for pt
-swallowing
-nutritional intake
lifestyle changes: smoking and drinking

47

mouth:
rad causes ___

dental decay

48

may prescribe for mouth

fluoride treatments
anti fungal cream

49

lead shield over teeth causes

more dose to area
more scatter

50

for shield, need to use something with lower z number

like wax

51

higher rad doses in ear

late symptoms

52

eyes: over time with low doses

glaucoma - anterior chamber of the eye

53

fibrosis in eye

causes obstruction
causes watery eyes
*can dilate duct

54

pterygoid muscle

opens and closes mouth

55

thyroid gland

fatigue, weakness, hair loss, memory loss,
hypothyroidism

56

Pituitary glad

normal function decrease around 55-60
impair gonads, thyroid, adrenal function

57

tumoritis

borders of tumor can be more defined- may have to change the treatment plan

58

CNS

Very sensitive

59

brain tumors in 2 years of life

rare

60

moderate or severe handicaps will follow in about __%

33%

61

how to receive brain symptoms

higher dose/ fx

62

When you lose hair it usually comes in much

finer

63

when do they lose hair

around fx 10 or 12
(2 weeks)
skull radionecrosis

64

extremities

lymph edema
don't want to treat entire ext
could get subcutaneous fibrosis

65

lower extremities avoided in elderly

diabetic?

66

avoid in children- lower extremity

growth plate (epiphysis)
could stunt growth

67

upper extremity

lymph edema

68

Total Body irradiation

TBI
whole body at once

69

Low Dose

CLL
(Chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
sytemic, don't see much anymore
*not curative

70

High Dose

*can be lethal
bidaily (6 hours inbetween)
less toxicity to pt
AP/PA blocks on lungs