Normative Values Flashcards Preview

Anatomy, Physiology, and Kinesiology > Normative Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Normative Values Deck (175):
1

Angle of Torsion of the Humerus

Torsion towards what direction?

30 degrees of Retrotorsion

2

Angle of Inclination of the Head of the Humerus

Other name?

130-150 degrees

Neck-shaft angle of the Humerus

3

At what angle of shoulder abduction do the GH ligaments become active?

What motion/s do they limit?

Superior GH: 0-45 degrees (limits ER and inferior translation of the humerus)

Middle GH: 45-90 degrees (limits ER at the functional range; primary ligament limiting ER at the GH joint)

Inferior GH: greater than 90 degrees
Anterior band limits ER
Posterior band limits IR
Axillary pouch limits inferior translation of the humerus

4

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 1 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

Scapula: setting (slight upward rotation)
Humerus: 0-30 degrees of shoulder abduction
Clavicle: 0-5 degrees of elevation

Total shoulder abduction: 30 degrees

5

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 2 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

Scapula: 20 degrees of upward rotation
Humerus: 40 degrees of shoulder abduction
Clavicle: 0-15 degrees of elevation

Total shoulder abduction: 90 degrees
30 from initial GH abduction
60 from scapulohumeral rhythm (40 GH; 20 Scapula)

6

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 3 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

Scapula: 30 degrees of upward rotation
Humerus: 60 degrees of shoulder abduction + ER
Clavicle: 30-50 degrees of posterior rotation

Total shoulder abduction: 120 degrees (as long as beyond 90 degrees)

7

Carrying Angle of Males

5-10 degrees

8

Carrying Angle of Females

10-15 degrees

9

Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Valgus

>15 degrees

10

Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Varus

<15 degrees

11

Gunstock Deformity

-15 degrees

12

Average Carrying angle of males and females

5-19 degrees

13

The Annular Ligament forms _/5ths of a ring

4/5ths of a ring

14

The Biceps brachii is its strongest as an elbow flexor at how many degrees of elbow flexion?

90 degrees

15

When the elbow is flexed to 90 degrees, the Biceps brachii is ____ times stronger as a supinator.

4x

16

When the elbow is fully extended, the Biceps brachii is _____ times stronger as a supinator.

2x

17

How many structures pass through the Carpal Tunnel? Name these structures.

10

4 tendons of the FDS
4 tendons of the FDP
1 tendon of the FPL
Median nerve

18

How many structures pass through the Tunnel of Guyon? Name these structures.

2

Ulnar nerve
Ulnar artery

19

How many Flexor Zones are there? Name these zones.

5

I - Insertion of the FDP
II - Insertion of the FDS
III - Neck of the metacarpals
IV - Area of the Carpal Tunnel
V - Area beyond the wrist

20

How many Extensor Zones are there? Name these zones.

8

I - DIP joint
II - Intermediate phalanx
III - PIP joint
IV - Proximal phalanx
V - MCP joint
VI - Metacarpals
VII - Carpals (wrist)
VIII - Area proximal to the wrist

21

How many Extensor Tunnels are there? Identify the structures that pass through these tunnels.

I - APL + EPB
II - ECRL + ECRB
III - EPL
IV - EDC + EI
V - EDM
VI - ECU

22

Difference in the number of vertebral segments in adults and in infants?

Infants - 33 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal)

Adults - 26 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccygeal)

23

Age where the cervical lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?

2-3 months, associated with development of head control

24

Age where the lumbar lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?

10-12 months, associated with standing and walking

25

Joint angle of cervical vertebrae

45 degrees

26

Joint angle of thoracic vertebrae

60 degrees

27

Joint angle of lumbar vertebrae

90 degrees

28

Atypical cervical vertebrae

C1, C2, C7

29

Atypical thoracic vertebrae

T1, T2, T3, T4, T9, T10, T11, T12

30

Atypical lumbar vertebrae

L5

31

Typical cervical vertebrae

C3, C4, C5, C6

32

Typical thoracic vertebrae

T5, T6, T7, T8

33

Typical lumbar vertebrae

L1, L2, L3, L4

34

The Nucleus pulposus is ____% water.

80-90%

35

The lamellae of the intervertebral discs are angulated at _____ degrees to each other

30 degrees

36

Ranges of motion of the AO joint

Flexion: 10 degrees
Extension: 25 degrees
Lateral flexion: 5 degrees
Rotation: 0 degrees

37

Ranges of motion of the AA joint

Flexion: 5 degrees
Extension: 10 degrees
Lateral flexion: 10 degrees
Rotation: 45 degrees

38

Ranges of motion of C3-C7 joints

Flexion: 45 degrees
Extension: 45 degrees
Lateral flexion: 30 degrees
Rotation: 30 degrees

39

Ranges of motion of the thoracic vertebral joints

Flexion: 15 degrees
Extension: 15 degrees
Lateral flexion: 15 degrees
Rotation: 40 degrees

40

Ranges of motion of the lumbar vertebral joints

Flexion: 40 degrees
Extension: 25 degrees
Lateral flexion: 20 degrees
Rotation: 5 degrees

41

Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade I?

1-25%

42

Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade II?

26-50%

43

Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade III?

51-75%

44

Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade IV?

76% and above

45

Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade V?

>100%

46

Normal diameter of the spinal canal

17mm

47

Normal diameter of the spinal cord

10mm

48

Relative spinal stenosis

<12mm

49

Absolute spinal stenosis

<10mm

50

Normal value for Schober's test

>5 cm

51

Value of Schober's test indicative of Ankylosing Spondylitis

<5 cm

52

Value of Schober's test indicative of Hypermobility

>10 cm

53

To be classified as Scheuermann's disease, how many consecutive vertebrae must wedge, and by how many degrees?

3 consecutive vertebrae, wedging for at least 5 degrees

54

Age of onset of Idiopathic Infantile Scoliosis

First 3 years of life

55

Age of onset of Idiopathic Juvenile Scoliosis

4-14 years old

56

Age of onset of Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis

10-16 years old

57

Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for males

9-11 years old

58

Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for females

11-13 years old

59

Amount of LLD requiring heel elevation

<1 inch

60

Amount of LLD requiring sole elevation

>1 inch

61

Degree of mild scoliosis

<20 degrees

62

Degree of moderate scoliosis

20-40 degrees

63

Degree of severe scoliosis

>40 degrees

64

Degree of scoliosis associated with pain and joint degeneration

40-50 degrees

65

Degree of scoliosis associated with cardiopulmonary changes and decreased life expectancy

60-70 degrees

66

In patients with scoliosis, spinal orthoses are given when the scoliosis reaches _____ degrees.

40-45 degrees

67

A Milwaukee brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?

Above T6 (T6)

68

A Miami brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?

Below T6 (T6-T8)

69

When the apex of the scoliosis is below T8, what spinal orthoses are given?

Boston, Wilmington, Yamamoto

70

Acetabular contributions of the 3 segments of the innominate.

Ischium: 40%
Ilium: 40%
Pubis: 20%

71

Pelvic tilt

7-15 degrees

72

Pelvic inclination

50-60 degrees

73

Sacral angle

30 degrees

41 degrees according to Magee (named Ferguson's angle' whereas Sacral angle pertains to Lumbosacral angle)

74

Lumbosacral angle

140 degrees

75

Normal ranges of motion of the hip joint

Flexion: 120 degrees
Extension: 20 degrees
Abduction: 45 degrees
Adduction: 30 degrees
ER: 45 degrees
IR: 40 degrees

76

FUNCTIONAL ranges of motion of the hip joint

Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
IR: 20 degrees
ER: 20 degrees

77

Functional range of the hip joint in sitting vs. while shoelace tying

Sitting: 112 degrees
Shoe tying: 120 degrees

78

Functional range of the hip joint in stooping

125 degrees

79

Functional ranges of the hip joint in squatting

Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
IR: 20 degrees

80

Functional ranges of the hip joint in stair ascent vs. descent

Ascent: 67 degrees
Descent: 36 degrees

81

Functional ranges of the hip joint in cross-legged position

Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
ER: 20 degrees

82

The femoral head forms _____ of a sphere

2/3

83

The femur is about _____ of a person's total body height

1/4

84

Wiberg's angle

>25 degrees

85

Wiberg's angle in possible Acetabular dysplasia

16-25 degrees

86

Wiberg's angle in definite Acetabular dysplasia

<16 degrees

87

Wiberg's angle in Acetabula Protrusio

>40 degrees

88

Neck-shaft angle of the Femur

160 degrees in children
125 degrees in adults

89

Angle of torsion of the femur. Towards what direction?

15 degrees of anteversion (medial torsion of the femoral condyles)

90

Femoral anteversion

>15 degrees

91

Femoral retroversion

<15 degrees

92

The Gluteus medius contributes _____% of hip abduction.

60%

93

The action of the Piriformis switches for ER to IR at _____ degrees of hip flexion.

90 degrees

94

The Psoas major muscle, by virtue of its origin, is the only remaining hip flexor beyond _____ degrees of hip flexion, as the other hip flexors are in active insufficiency.

90 degrees

95

Hamstring to quadriceps ratio in isokinetic dynamometry

Hamstring torque is:
65% / 69% / 71% of peak torque of the quadriceps at 60 / 180 / 300 degrees per second

96

Selective stretching of the hamstrings in supine in patients with SCI is up to what degrees?

This is for what?

110 degrees (instead of the usual 90 degrees)

Done to allow functions in long sitting position.

97

Minimal recommended work interval duration for non-deconditioned adults performing aerobic interval training

10 minutes

5 minutes for the extremely deconditioned
20 minutes is the minimum required daily exercise time
30 minutes is the recommended daily exercise time (require breaking down into 10-minute intervals for interval training)

98

Pressure relief in sitting in patients with SCI

10-15 seconds of pressure relief (via seated push-ups) every 15-20 minutes of sitting

99

Peak insulin activity

During this time, exercise is avoided or encouraged?

2-4 hours after injection

Exercise is avoided as insulin decreases blood sugar. The patient may be at risk of hypoglycemia.

100

Recommended initial exercise program for patients with CHF and claudication pain.

Daily walking for 10-15 minute periods (interval training)

101

Normal findings in craniocervical flexion testing

Active chin tuck against an inflated BP cuff causes a rise of 22 mmHg, and can hold this position for 10 seconds.

Holding for 30 seconds tests endurance.

102

Glide to increase shoulder ER (as in Adhesive capsulitis)

Posterior glide; an exception to the convex-concave rule

Sullivan and Siegelman, 20th edition, B150

103

Graded exercise testing in post-MI patients.

What intensity must be avoided?

How many days post-MI is a graded exercise test administered?

70% of age-predicted maximum HR is avoided, as the zone of necrosis may extend into the zone of injury or ischemia.

Low-level graded exercise testing is usually administered 4-6 days post-MI

104

Initial exercise intensity for sedentary asymptomatic elderly

50-80% HR reserve = 50-80% VO2max = 60-90% HRmax

105

SaO2 value warranting the use of supplemental O2.

SaO2 <88% or PaO2 <55 mmHg

106

Height of a hemi- or low-seat wheelchair

17.5 inches

107

Height of a standard wheelchair

20 inches

108

Weight-bearing following a meniscal repair surgery.

3-6 weeks post-surgery

109

Amount of separation of the abdominals (Diastasis Recti) warranting protective splinting.

>2 cm

110

How long is vigorous exercise contraindicated post-cesarean?

At least 6 weeks

Includes abdominal crunches

111

Height of horizontal grab bars

33-36 inches

112

Toilet seat height

17-19 inches

113

Ramp grade and ratio

1:12 (8.3%)

114

Stair step

7 inches

115

Door width for wheelchair passage

32 inches

116

Decrease in BP upon standing indicative of OH

20 mmHg

117

Normal skin pH

3-4

118

Return to previous level of function following ACL reconstruction.

6-12 months

119

Obtained maximum oxygen consumption values are lower with UE ergometer GXT by about _____% than when using the treadmill.

Why is this so?

20-30%

Due to the smaller muscle mass of the UEs.

Note however, that despite lower myocardial oxygen consumption, HR and SBP is increased at a given workload.

120

Normal intensity used in estimating THR from MHR.

70%-85%

121

Mature scars

12-18 months

122

Wheelchair seat width

18 inches (allowance of 2 inches)

123

Wheelchair backrest height

16-16.5 inches

Measured -4 inches from the floor of the axilla

124

Wheelchair seat depth

16 inches

Measured -2 inches from the posterior buttocks, along the lateral thigh, to the popliteal fold

125

Healing times for return to function following ACL and PCL reconstruction.

ACL: 4-6 months
PCL: 9-12 months

126

Healing times of burns

S: 2-5 days
SPT: 5-21 days
DPT: 21-35 days
FT: skin grafting
SD: skin grafting

127

Healing times and indicated activities for rotator cuff tears

6-8 weeks: strengthening, endurance, neuromuscular control activities (10-12 weeks for severe tears)

12-14 weeks: activity-specific strengthening

24-48 weeks: recreational activities

36-40 weeks: return to normal

128

Standard METs for typically developing young individuals.

10 METs

129

Standard METs for athletes.

15-20 METs

130

Normal time for Rubor of dependency

30 seconds

131

Normal Venous filling time

15 seconds

Greater than 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease
Less then 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease

132

The Greater Saphenous vein is palpated distal to the knee, and percussed _____ inches above the knee in the percussion test.

6 inches

133

Abnormal results in the Trendelenburg test for venous refill.

Distension within 5 seconds before the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence in the deep veins.

Distension within 5 seconds after the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence of the superficial veins.

134

Normal poundage in lumbar traction for initial treatment

15-25% of body weight, or around 30-45 lbs

135

Treatment time for lumbar traction initially.

5 minutes for a brief trial.


Usually, initial sessions are limited to 5 minutes if symptoms are severe, or 10 minutes if symptoms are mild to moderate.

136

Treatment time for lumbar traction for soft tissue stretch.

20-30 minutes (usually 25 minutes), given that the patient has previously tolerated traction.

137

US using 3 Mhz affects tissues up to?

1-2 cm (<2 cm; superficial)

138

US using 1 Mhz affects tissues up to?

2-5 cm (deep)

anything beyond 5 cm cannot be effectively treated by US.

139

Usual towel layers when applying hot packs.

What are the special cases?

6-8 towel layers.

4-6 may be used, as per the patient's response. Caution however, as increased tissue temperature has a decreased sensitivity to stimuli.

Hot pack covers count as 2 towel layers. Therefore, if using hot pack covers, 3-4 layers are usually enough.

140

Usual temperature of hydrocollator where hot packs are stored.

70-75 degrees Celsius

141

Hallway width to allow changing of directions while using a wheelchair.

36 inches (also the ideal width of doorways)

142

The ligamentum flavum is _____% elastic cartilage.

80%

It is the ligament that contains the most elastic cartilage, giving it its yellow color; hence its other name, Yellow Ligament.

143

Muscle power is greatest at _____% of the maximum load.

30%

144

Physiologic curves in children become similar to that of adults at the age of?

10 months

145

Cervical lordosis in children develops at what age?

2-3 months, upon developing head control

146

Lumbar lordosis in children develops at what age?

10 months, upon developing standing and subsequently, walking.

147

Normal physiologic varus in children is present at what age?

0-24 months (birth to 2 years)

148

Normal physiologic valgus in children is present at what age?

2-7 years

149

In full term infants, knee extension is limited by?

20 degrees

150

Pinch grip strength of adult males

4-5 kg

151

The xiphoid process ossifies and unites with the body of sternum at what age?

40 years

152

On:off time for muscle re-education.

1:5

153

On:off time for relieving muscle spasm.

1:1

154

Percentage of the Corticospinal tracts that decussate.

80%

20% descends ipsilaterally.

155

ROM of wrist radial deviation

0-20 degrees

156

ROM of wrist ulnar deviation

0-30 degrees

157

ROM of wrist extension

0-70 degrees

158

A nasal cannula used for supplemental O2 delivers a rate of _____ liters per minute.

Each liter increases O2 in the air by _____ percent.

1-6 liters per minute

4% per liter

Supplemental O2 mixes with room air, such that a flow rate of:
1 liter = 25% oxygenation
2 liters = 29% oxygenation
3 liters = 33% oxygenation
etc.

159

Blood glucose indicative of hypoglycemia

<70 mg/dL

160

Compression garment pressure to prevent DVT

16-18 mmHg

161

Compression garment pressure to control scar tissue formation

20-30 mmHg

162

Compression garment pressure to control lower extremity edema

30-40 mmHg

163

1 MET corresponds to approximately how much increase in SBP?

10 mmHg

164

US duty cycle where there is no net increase in tissue temperature.

This mode is known as?

20% or less

Pulsed US.

165

Pulmonary function tests are considered abnormal if values are not within _____% of the normal.

80%

166

Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

34%

167

Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

68%

168

Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 and 2 standard deviations corresponds to _____% of the population.

14%

169

Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

48%

170

Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

96%

171

In CKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?

0-30 degrees of knee flexion

This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in CKC are preferred initially.

172

In OKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?

90 degrees of flexion

This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in OKC are not preferred for initial treatment

173

Q angle for males

13 degrees

174

Q angle for females

18 degrees

175

General parameters for CPM.

2 cycles per minute