Flashcards in Normative Values Deck (175):
Angle of Torsion of the Humerus
Torsion towards what direction?
30 degrees of Retrotorsion
Angle of Inclination of the Head of the Humerus
Neck-shaft angle of the Humerus
At what angle of shoulder abduction do the GH ligaments become active?
What motion/s do they limit?
Superior GH: 0-45 degrees (limits ER and inferior translation of the humerus)
Middle GH: 45-90 degrees (limits ER at the functional range; primary ligament limiting ER at the GH joint)
Inferior GH: greater than 90 degrees
Anterior band limits ER
Posterior band limits IR
Axillary pouch limits inferior translation of the humerus
Phase 1 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction
Scapula: setting (slight upward rotation)
Humerus: 0-30 degrees of shoulder abduction
Clavicle: 0-5 degrees of elevation
Total shoulder abduction: 30 degrees
Phase 2 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction
Scapula: 20 degrees of upward rotation
Humerus: 40 degrees of shoulder abduction
Clavicle: 0-15 degrees of elevation
Total shoulder abduction: 90 degrees
30 from initial GH abduction
60 from scapulohumeral rhythm (40 GH; 20 Scapula)
Phase 3 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction
Scapula: 30 degrees of upward rotation
Humerus: 60 degrees of shoulder abduction + ER
Clavicle: 30-50 degrees of posterior rotation
Total shoulder abduction: 120 degrees (as long as beyond 90 degrees)
Carrying Angle of Males
Carrying Angle of Females
Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Valgus
Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Varus
Average Carrying angle of males and females
The Annular Ligament forms _/5ths of a ring
4/5ths of a ring
The Biceps brachii is its strongest as an elbow flexor at how many degrees of elbow flexion?
When the elbow is flexed to 90 degrees, the Biceps brachii is ____ times stronger as a supinator.
When the elbow is fully extended, the Biceps brachii is _____ times stronger as a supinator.
How many structures pass through the Carpal Tunnel? Name these structures.
4 tendons of the FDS
4 tendons of the FDP
1 tendon of the FPL
How many structures pass through the Tunnel of Guyon? Name these structures.
How many Flexor Zones are there? Name these zones.
I - Insertion of the FDP
II - Insertion of the FDS
III - Neck of the metacarpals
IV - Area of the Carpal Tunnel
V - Area beyond the wrist
How many Extensor Zones are there? Name these zones.
I - DIP joint
II - Intermediate phalanx
III - PIP joint
IV - Proximal phalanx
V - MCP joint
VI - Metacarpals
VII - Carpals (wrist)
VIII - Area proximal to the wrist
How many Extensor Tunnels are there? Identify the structures that pass through these tunnels.
I - APL + EPB
II - ECRL + ECRB
III - EPL
IV - EDC + EI
V - EDM
VI - ECU
Difference in the number of vertebral segments in adults and in infants?
Infants - 33 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal)
Adults - 26 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccygeal)
Age where the cervical lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?
2-3 months, associated with development of head control
Age where the lumbar lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?
10-12 months, associated with standing and walking
Joint angle of cervical vertebrae
Joint angle of thoracic vertebrae
Joint angle of lumbar vertebrae
Atypical cervical vertebrae
C1, C2, C7
Atypical thoracic vertebrae
T1, T2, T3, T4, T9, T10, T11, T12
Atypical lumbar vertebrae
Typical cervical vertebrae
C3, C4, C5, C6
Typical thoracic vertebrae
T5, T6, T7, T8
Typical lumbar vertebrae
L1, L2, L3, L4
The Nucleus pulposus is ____% water.
The lamellae of the intervertebral discs are angulated at _____ degrees to each other
Ranges of motion of the AO joint
Flexion: 10 degrees
Extension: 25 degrees
Lateral flexion: 5 degrees
Rotation: 0 degrees
Ranges of motion of the AA joint
Flexion: 5 degrees
Extension: 10 degrees
Lateral flexion: 10 degrees
Rotation: 45 degrees
Ranges of motion of C3-C7 joints
Flexion: 45 degrees
Extension: 45 degrees
Lateral flexion: 30 degrees
Rotation: 30 degrees
Ranges of motion of the thoracic vertebral joints
Flexion: 15 degrees
Extension: 15 degrees
Lateral flexion: 15 degrees
Rotation: 40 degrees
Ranges of motion of the lumbar vertebral joints
Flexion: 40 degrees
Extension: 25 degrees
Lateral flexion: 20 degrees
Rotation: 5 degrees
Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade I?
Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade II?
Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade III?
Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade IV?
76% and above
Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade V?
Normal diameter of the spinal canal
Normal diameter of the spinal cord
Relative spinal stenosis
Absolute spinal stenosis
Normal value for Schober's test
Value of Schober's test indicative of Ankylosing Spondylitis
Value of Schober's test indicative of Hypermobility
To be classified as Scheuermann's disease, how many consecutive vertebrae must wedge, and by how many degrees?
3 consecutive vertebrae, wedging for at least 5 degrees
Age of onset of Idiopathic Infantile Scoliosis
First 3 years of life
Age of onset of Idiopathic Juvenile Scoliosis
4-14 years old
Age of onset of Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis
10-16 years old
Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for males
9-11 years old
Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for females
11-13 years old
Amount of LLD requiring heel elevation
Amount of LLD requiring sole elevation
Degree of mild scoliosis
Degree of moderate scoliosis
Degree of severe scoliosis
Degree of scoliosis associated with pain and joint degeneration
Degree of scoliosis associated with cardiopulmonary changes and decreased life expectancy
In patients with scoliosis, spinal orthoses are given when the scoliosis reaches _____ degrees.
A Milwaukee brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?
Above T6 (T6)
A Miami brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?
Below T6 (T6-T8)
When the apex of the scoliosis is below T8, what spinal orthoses are given?
Boston, Wilmington, Yamamoto
Acetabular contributions of the 3 segments of the innominate.
41 degrees according to Magee (named Ferguson's angle' whereas Sacral angle pertains to Lumbosacral angle)
Normal ranges of motion of the hip joint
Flexion: 120 degrees
Extension: 20 degrees
Abduction: 45 degrees
Adduction: 30 degrees
ER: 45 degrees
IR: 40 degrees
FUNCTIONAL ranges of motion of the hip joint
Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
IR: 20 degrees
ER: 20 degrees
Functional range of the hip joint in sitting vs. while shoelace tying
Sitting: 112 degrees
Shoe tying: 120 degrees
Functional range of the hip joint in stooping
Functional ranges of the hip joint in squatting
Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
IR: 20 degrees
Functional ranges of the hip joint in stair ascent vs. descent
Ascent: 67 degrees
Descent: 36 degrees
Functional ranges of the hip joint in cross-legged position
Flexion: 120 degrees
Abduction: 20 degrees
ER: 20 degrees
The femoral head forms _____ of a sphere
The femur is about _____ of a person's total body height
Wiberg's angle in possible Acetabular dysplasia
Wiberg's angle in definite Acetabular dysplasia
Wiberg's angle in Acetabula Protrusio
Neck-shaft angle of the Femur
160 degrees in children
125 degrees in adults
Angle of torsion of the femur. Towards what direction?
15 degrees of anteversion (medial torsion of the femoral condyles)
The Gluteus medius contributes _____% of hip abduction.
The action of the Piriformis switches for ER to IR at _____ degrees of hip flexion.
The Psoas major muscle, by virtue of its origin, is the only remaining hip flexor beyond _____ degrees of hip flexion, as the other hip flexors are in active insufficiency.
Hamstring to quadriceps ratio in isokinetic dynamometry
Hamstring torque is:
65% / 69% / 71% of peak torque of the quadriceps at 60 / 180 / 300 degrees per second
Selective stretching of the hamstrings in supine in patients with SCI is up to what degrees?
This is for what?
110 degrees (instead of the usual 90 degrees)
Done to allow functions in long sitting position.
Minimal recommended work interval duration for non-deconditioned adults performing aerobic interval training
5 minutes for the extremely deconditioned
20 minutes is the minimum required daily exercise time
30 minutes is the recommended daily exercise time (require breaking down into 10-minute intervals for interval training)
Pressure relief in sitting in patients with SCI
10-15 seconds of pressure relief (via seated push-ups) every 15-20 minutes of sitting
Peak insulin activity
During this time, exercise is avoided or encouraged?
2-4 hours after injection
Exercise is avoided as insulin decreases blood sugar. The patient may be at risk of hypoglycemia.
Recommended initial exercise program for patients with CHF and claudication pain.
Daily walking for 10-15 minute periods (interval training)
Normal findings in craniocervical flexion testing
Active chin tuck against an inflated BP cuff causes a rise of 22 mmHg, and can hold this position for 10 seconds.
Holding for 30 seconds tests endurance.
Glide to increase shoulder ER (as in Adhesive capsulitis)
Posterior glide; an exception to the convex-concave rule
Sullivan and Siegelman, 20th edition, B150
Graded exercise testing in post-MI patients.
What intensity must be avoided?
How many days post-MI is a graded exercise test administered?
70% of age-predicted maximum HR is avoided, as the zone of necrosis may extend into the zone of injury or ischemia.
Low-level graded exercise testing is usually administered 4-6 days post-MI
Initial exercise intensity for sedentary asymptomatic elderly
50-80% HR reserve = 50-80% VO2max = 60-90% HRmax
SaO2 value warranting the use of supplemental O2.
SaO2 <88% or PaO2 <55 mmHg
Height of a hemi- or low-seat wheelchair
Height of a standard wheelchair
Weight-bearing following a meniscal repair surgery.
3-6 weeks post-surgery
Amount of separation of the abdominals (Diastasis Recti) warranting protective splinting.
How long is vigorous exercise contraindicated post-cesarean?
At least 6 weeks
Includes abdominal crunches
Height of horizontal grab bars
Toilet seat height
Ramp grade and ratio
Door width for wheelchair passage
Decrease in BP upon standing indicative of OH
Normal skin pH
Return to previous level of function following ACL reconstruction.
Obtained maximum oxygen consumption values are lower with UE ergometer GXT by about _____% than when using the treadmill.
Why is this so?
Due to the smaller muscle mass of the UEs.
Note however, that despite lower myocardial oxygen consumption, HR and SBP is increased at a given workload.
Normal intensity used in estimating THR from MHR.
Wheelchair seat width
18 inches (allowance of 2 inches)
Wheelchair backrest height
Measured -4 inches from the floor of the axilla
Wheelchair seat depth
Measured -2 inches from the posterior buttocks, along the lateral thigh, to the popliteal fold
Healing times for return to function following ACL and PCL reconstruction.
ACL: 4-6 months
PCL: 9-12 months
Healing times of burns
S: 2-5 days
SPT: 5-21 days
DPT: 21-35 days
FT: skin grafting
SD: skin grafting
Healing times and indicated activities for rotator cuff tears
6-8 weeks: strengthening, endurance, neuromuscular control activities (10-12 weeks for severe tears)
12-14 weeks: activity-specific strengthening
24-48 weeks: recreational activities
36-40 weeks: return to normal
Standard METs for typically developing young individuals.
Standard METs for athletes.
Normal time for Rubor of dependency
Normal Venous filling time
Greater than 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease
Less then 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease
The Greater Saphenous vein is palpated distal to the knee, and percussed _____ inches above the knee in the percussion test.
Abnormal results in the Trendelenburg test for venous refill.
Distension within 5 seconds before the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence in the deep veins.
Distension within 5 seconds after the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence of the superficial veins.
Normal poundage in lumbar traction for initial treatment
15-25% of body weight, or around 30-45 lbs
Treatment time for lumbar traction initially.
5 minutes for a brief trial.
Usually, initial sessions are limited to 5 minutes if symptoms are severe, or 10 minutes if symptoms are mild to moderate.
Treatment time for lumbar traction for soft tissue stretch.
20-30 minutes (usually 25 minutes), given that the patient has previously tolerated traction.
US using 3 Mhz affects tissues up to?
1-2 cm (<2 cm; superficial)
US using 1 Mhz affects tissues up to?
2-5 cm (deep)
anything beyond 5 cm cannot be effectively treated by US.
Usual towel layers when applying hot packs.
What are the special cases?
6-8 towel layers.
4-6 may be used, as per the patient's response. Caution however, as increased tissue temperature has a decreased sensitivity to stimuli.
Hot pack covers count as 2 towel layers. Therefore, if using hot pack covers, 3-4 layers are usually enough.
Usual temperature of hydrocollator where hot packs are stored.
70-75 degrees Celsius
Hallway width to allow changing of directions while using a wheelchair.
36 inches (also the ideal width of doorways)
The ligamentum flavum is _____% elastic cartilage.
It is the ligament that contains the most elastic cartilage, giving it its yellow color; hence its other name, Yellow Ligament.
Muscle power is greatest at _____% of the maximum load.
Physiologic curves in children become similar to that of adults at the age of?
Cervical lordosis in children develops at what age?
2-3 months, upon developing head control
Lumbar lordosis in children develops at what age?
10 months, upon developing standing and subsequently, walking.
Normal physiologic varus in children is present at what age?
0-24 months (birth to 2 years)
Normal physiologic valgus in children is present at what age?
In full term infants, knee extension is limited by?
Pinch grip strength of adult males
The xiphoid process ossifies and unites with the body of sternum at what age?
On:off time for muscle re-education.
On:off time for relieving muscle spasm.
Percentage of the Corticospinal tracts that decussate.
20% descends ipsilaterally.
ROM of wrist radial deviation
ROM of wrist ulnar deviation
ROM of wrist extension
A nasal cannula used for supplemental O2 delivers a rate of _____ liters per minute.
Each liter increases O2 in the air by _____ percent.
1-6 liters per minute
4% per liter
Supplemental O2 mixes with room air, such that a flow rate of:
1 liter = 25% oxygenation
2 liters = 29% oxygenation
3 liters = 33% oxygenation
Blood glucose indicative of hypoglycemia
Compression garment pressure to prevent DVT
Compression garment pressure to control scar tissue formation
Compression garment pressure to control lower extremity edema
1 MET corresponds to approximately how much increase in SBP?
US duty cycle where there is no net increase in tissue temperature.
This mode is known as?
20% or less
Pulmonary function tests are considered abnormal if values are not within _____% of the normal.
Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.
Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.
Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 and 2 standard deviations corresponds to _____% of the population.
Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.
Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.
In CKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?
0-30 degrees of knee flexion
This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in CKC are preferred initially.
In OKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?
90 degrees of flexion
This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in OKC are not preferred for initial treatment
Q angle for males
Q angle for females