Flashcards in Normative Values Deck (175):

1

##
Angle of Torsion of the Humerus

Torsion towards what direction?

### 30 degrees of Retrotorsion

2

##
Angle of Inclination of the Head of the Humerus

Other name?

###
130-150 degrees

Neck-shaft angle of the Humerus

3

##
At what angle of shoulder abduction do the GH ligaments become active?

What motion/s do they limit?

###
Superior GH: 0-45 degrees (limits ER and inferior translation of the humerus)

Middle GH: 45-90 degrees (limits ER at the functional range; primary ligament limiting ER at the GH joint)

Inferior GH: greater than 90 degrees

Anterior band limits ER

Posterior band limits IR

Axillary pouch limits inferior translation of the humerus

4

##
Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 1 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

###
Scapula: setting (slight upward rotation)

Humerus: 0-30 degrees of shoulder abduction

Clavicle: 0-5 degrees of elevation

Total shoulder abduction: 30 degrees

5

##
Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 2 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

###
Scapula: 20 degrees of upward rotation

Humerus: 40 degrees of shoulder abduction

Clavicle: 0-15 degrees of elevation

Total shoulder abduction: 90 degrees

30 from initial GH abduction

60 from scapulohumeral rhythm (40 GH; 20 Scapula)

6

##
Scapulohumeral Rhythm

Phase 3 of the Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle; and total shoulder abduction

###
Scapula: 30 degrees of upward rotation

Humerus: 60 degrees of shoulder abduction + ER

Clavicle: 30-50 degrees of posterior rotation

Total shoulder abduction: 120 degrees (as long as beyond 90 degrees)

7

## Carrying Angle of Males

### 5-10 degrees

8

## Carrying Angle of Females

### 10-15 degrees

9

## Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Valgus

### >15 degrees

10

## Carrying angle to be deemed Cubitus Varus

### <15 degrees

11

## Gunstock Deformity

### -15 degrees

12

## Average Carrying angle of males and females

### 5-19 degrees

13

## The Annular Ligament forms _/5ths of a ring

### 4/5ths of a ring

14

## The Biceps brachii is its strongest as an elbow flexor at how many degrees of elbow flexion?

### 90 degrees

15

## When the elbow is flexed to 90 degrees, the Biceps brachii is ____ times stronger as a supinator.

### 4x

16

## When the elbow is fully extended, the Biceps brachii is _____ times stronger as a supinator.

### 2x

17

## How many structures pass through the Carpal Tunnel? Name these structures.

###
10

4 tendons of the FDS

4 tendons of the FDP

1 tendon of the FPL

Median nerve

18

## How many structures pass through the Tunnel of Guyon? Name these structures.

###
2

Ulnar nerve

Ulnar artery

19

## How many Flexor Zones are there? Name these zones.

###
5

I - Insertion of the FDP

II - Insertion of the FDS

III - Neck of the metacarpals

IV - Area of the Carpal Tunnel

V - Area beyond the wrist

20

## How many Extensor Zones are there? Name these zones.

###
8

I - DIP joint

II - Intermediate phalanx

III - PIP joint

IV - Proximal phalanx

V - MCP joint

VI - Metacarpals

VII - Carpals (wrist)

VIII - Area proximal to the wrist

21

## How many Extensor Tunnels are there? Identify the structures that pass through these tunnels.

###
I - APL + EPB

II - ECRL + ECRB

III - EPL

IV - EDC + EI

V - EDM

VI - ECU

22

## Difference in the number of vertebral segments in adults and in infants?

###
Infants - 33 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal)

Adults - 26 segments (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacral, 1 coccygeal)

23

## Age where the cervical lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?

### 2-3 months, associated with development of head control

24

## Age where the lumbar lordosis develops? What associated activity emerges?

### 10-12 months, associated with standing and walking

25

## Joint angle of cervical vertebrae

### 45 degrees

26

## Joint angle of thoracic vertebrae

### 60 degrees

27

## Joint angle of lumbar vertebrae

### 90 degrees

28

## Atypical cervical vertebrae

### C1, C2, C7

29

## Atypical thoracic vertebrae

### T1, T2, T3, T4, T9, T10, T11, T12

30

## Atypical lumbar vertebrae

### L5

31

## Typical cervical vertebrae

### C3, C4, C5, C6

32

## Typical thoracic vertebrae

### T5, T6, T7, T8

33

## Typical lumbar vertebrae

### L1, L2, L3, L4

34

## The Nucleus pulposus is ____% water.

### 80-90%

35

## The lamellae of the intervertebral discs are angulated at _____ degrees to each other

### 30 degrees

36

## Ranges of motion of the AO joint

###
Flexion: 10 degrees

Extension: 25 degrees

Lateral flexion: 5 degrees

Rotation: 0 degrees

37

## Ranges of motion of the AA joint

###
Flexion: 5 degrees

Extension: 10 degrees

Lateral flexion: 10 degrees

Rotation: 45 degrees

38

## Ranges of motion of C3-C7 joints

###
Flexion: 45 degrees

Extension: 45 degrees

Lateral flexion: 30 degrees

Rotation: 30 degrees

39

## Ranges of motion of the thoracic vertebral joints

###
Flexion: 15 degrees

Extension: 15 degrees

Lateral flexion: 15 degrees

Rotation: 40 degrees

40

## Ranges of motion of the lumbar vertebral joints

###
Flexion: 40 degrees

Extension: 25 degrees

Lateral flexion: 20 degrees

Rotation: 5 degrees

41

## Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade I?

### 1-25%

42

## Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade II?

### 26-50%

43

## Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade III?

### 51-75%

44

## Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade IV?

### 76% and above

45

## Percentage of anterior slippage in Spondylolisthesis grade V?

### >100%

46

## Normal diameter of the spinal canal

### 17mm

47

## Normal diameter of the spinal cord

### 10mm

48

## Relative spinal stenosis

### <12mm

49

## Absolute spinal stenosis

### <10mm

50

## Normal value for Schober's test

### >5 cm

51

## Value of Schober's test indicative of Ankylosing Spondylitis

### <5 cm

52

## Value of Schober's test indicative of Hypermobility

### >10 cm

53

## To be classified as Scheuermann's disease, how many consecutive vertebrae must wedge, and by how many degrees?

### 3 consecutive vertebrae, wedging for at least 5 degrees

54

## Age of onset of Idiopathic Infantile Scoliosis

### First 3 years of life

55

## Age of onset of Idiopathic Juvenile Scoliosis

### 4-14 years old

56

## Age of onset of Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis

### 10-16 years old

57

## Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for males

### 9-11 years old

58

## Age of Scoliosis screening ideal for females

### 11-13 years old

59

## Amount of LLD requiring heel elevation

### <1 inch

60

## Amount of LLD requiring sole elevation

### >1 inch

61

## Degree of mild scoliosis

### <20 degrees

62

## Degree of moderate scoliosis

### 20-40 degrees

63

## Degree of severe scoliosis

### >40 degrees

64

## Degree of scoliosis associated with pain and joint degeneration

### 40-50 degrees

65

## Degree of scoliosis associated with cardiopulmonary changes and decreased life expectancy

### 60-70 degrees

66

## In patients with scoliosis, spinal orthoses are given when the scoliosis reaches _____ degrees.

### 40-45 degrees

67

## A Milwaukee brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?

### Above T6 (T6)

68

## A Miami brace is given when the apex of the scoliosis is where?

### Below T6 (T6-T8)

69

## When the apex of the scoliosis is below T8, what spinal orthoses are given?

### Boston, Wilmington, Yamamoto

70

## Acetabular contributions of the 3 segments of the innominate.

###
Ischium: 40%

Ilium: 40%

Pubis: 20%

71

## Pelvic tilt

### 7-15 degrees

72

## Pelvic inclination

### 50-60 degrees

73

## Sacral angle

###
30 degrees

41 degrees according to Magee (named Ferguson's angle' whereas Sacral angle pertains to Lumbosacral angle)

74

## Lumbosacral angle

### 140 degrees

75

## Normal ranges of motion of the hip joint

###
Flexion: 120 degrees

Extension: 20 degrees

Abduction: 45 degrees

Adduction: 30 degrees

ER: 45 degrees

IR: 40 degrees

76

## FUNCTIONAL ranges of motion of the hip joint

###
Flexion: 120 degrees

Abduction: 20 degrees

IR: 20 degrees

ER: 20 degrees

77

## Functional range of the hip joint in sitting vs. while shoelace tying

###
Sitting: 112 degrees

Shoe tying: 120 degrees

78

## Functional range of the hip joint in stooping

### 125 degrees

79

## Functional ranges of the hip joint in squatting

###
Flexion: 120 degrees

Abduction: 20 degrees

IR: 20 degrees

80

## Functional ranges of the hip joint in stair ascent vs. descent

###
Ascent: 67 degrees

Descent: 36 degrees

81

## Functional ranges of the hip joint in cross-legged position

###
Flexion: 120 degrees

Abduction: 20 degrees

ER: 20 degrees

82

## The femoral head forms _____ of a sphere

### 2/3

83

## The femur is about _____ of a person's total body height

### 1/4

84

## Wiberg's angle

### >25 degrees

85

## Wiberg's angle in possible Acetabular dysplasia

### 16-25 degrees

86

## Wiberg's angle in definite Acetabular dysplasia

### <16 degrees

87

## Wiberg's angle in Acetabula Protrusio

### >40 degrees

88

## Neck-shaft angle of the Femur

###
160 degrees in children

125 degrees in adults

89

## Angle of torsion of the femur. Towards what direction?

### 15 degrees of anteversion (medial torsion of the femoral condyles)

90

## Femoral anteversion

### >15 degrees

91

## Femoral retroversion

### <15 degrees

92

## The Gluteus medius contributes _____% of hip abduction.

### 60%

93

## The action of the Piriformis switches for ER to IR at _____ degrees of hip flexion.

### 90 degrees

94

## The Psoas major muscle, by virtue of its origin, is the only remaining hip flexor beyond _____ degrees of hip flexion, as the other hip flexors are in active insufficiency.

### 90 degrees

95

## Hamstring to quadriceps ratio in isokinetic dynamometry

###
Hamstring torque is:

65% / 69% / 71% of peak torque of the quadriceps at 60 / 180 / 300 degrees per second

96

##
Selective stretching of the hamstrings in supine in patients with SCI is up to what degrees?

This is for what?

###
110 degrees (instead of the usual 90 degrees)

Done to allow functions in long sitting position.

97

## Minimal recommended work interval duration for non-deconditioned adults performing aerobic interval training

###
10 minutes

5 minutes for the extremely deconditioned

20 minutes is the minimum required daily exercise time

30 minutes is the recommended daily exercise time (require breaking down into 10-minute intervals for interval training)

98

## Pressure relief in sitting in patients with SCI

### 10-15 seconds of pressure relief (via seated push-ups) every 15-20 minutes of sitting

99

##
Peak insulin activity

During this time, exercise is avoided or encouraged?

###
2-4 hours after injection

Exercise is avoided as insulin decreases blood sugar. The patient may be at risk of hypoglycemia.

100

## Recommended initial exercise program for patients with CHF and claudication pain.

### Daily walking for 10-15 minute periods (interval training)

101

## Normal findings in craniocervical flexion testing

###
Active chin tuck against an inflated BP cuff causes a rise of 22 mmHg, and can hold this position for 10 seconds.

Holding for 30 seconds tests endurance.

102

## Glide to increase shoulder ER (as in Adhesive capsulitis)

###
Posterior glide; an exception to the convex-concave rule

Sullivan and Siegelman, 20th edition, B150

103

##
Graded exercise testing in post-MI patients.

What intensity must be avoided?

How many days post-MI is a graded exercise test administered?

###
70% of age-predicted maximum HR is avoided, as the zone of necrosis may extend into the zone of injury or ischemia.

Low-level graded exercise testing is usually administered 4-6 days post-MI

104

## Initial exercise intensity for sedentary asymptomatic elderly

### 50-80% HR reserve = 50-80% VO2max = 60-90% HRmax

105

## SaO2 value warranting the use of supplemental O2.

### SaO2 <88% or PaO2 <55 mmHg

106

## Height of a hemi- or low-seat wheelchair

### 17.5 inches

107

## Height of a standard wheelchair

### 20 inches

108

## Weight-bearing following a meniscal repair surgery.

### 3-6 weeks post-surgery

109

## Amount of separation of the abdominals (Diastasis Recti) warranting protective splinting.

### >2 cm

110

## How long is vigorous exercise contraindicated post-cesarean?

###
At least 6 weeks

Includes abdominal crunches

111

## Height of horizontal grab bars

### 33-36 inches

112

## Toilet seat height

### 17-19 inches

113

## Ramp grade and ratio

### 1:12 (8.3%)

114

## Stair step

### 7 inches

115

## Door width for wheelchair passage

### 32 inches

116

## Decrease in BP upon standing indicative of OH

### 20 mmHg

117

## Normal skin pH

### 3-4

118

## Return to previous level of function following ACL reconstruction.

### 6-12 months

119

##
Obtained maximum oxygen consumption values are lower with UE ergometer GXT by about _____% than when using the treadmill.

Why is this so?

###
20-30%

Due to the smaller muscle mass of the UEs.

Note however, that despite lower myocardial oxygen consumption, HR and SBP is increased at a given workload.

120

## Normal intensity used in estimating THR from MHR.

### 70%-85%

121

## Mature scars

### 12-18 months

122

## Wheelchair seat width

### 18 inches (allowance of 2 inches)

123

## Wheelchair backrest height

###
16-16.5 inches

Measured -4 inches from the floor of the axilla

124

## Wheelchair seat depth

###
16 inches

Measured -2 inches from the posterior buttocks, along the lateral thigh, to the popliteal fold

125

## Healing times for return to function following ACL and PCL reconstruction.

###
ACL: 4-6 months

PCL: 9-12 months

126

## Healing times of burns

###
S: 2-5 days

SPT: 5-21 days

DPT: 21-35 days

FT: skin grafting

SD: skin grafting

127

## Healing times and indicated activities for rotator cuff tears

###
6-8 weeks: strengthening, endurance, neuromuscular control activities (10-12 weeks for severe tears)

12-14 weeks: activity-specific strengthening

24-48 weeks: recreational activities

36-40 weeks: return to normal

128

## Standard METs for typically developing young individuals.

### 10 METs

129

## Standard METs for athletes.

### 15-20 METs

130

## Normal time for Rubor of dependency

### 30 seconds

131

## Normal Venous filling time

###
15 seconds

Greater than 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease

Less then 15 seconds is indicative of arterial disease

132

## The Greater Saphenous vein is palpated distal to the knee, and percussed _____ inches above the knee in the percussion test.

### 6 inches

133

## Abnormal results in the Trendelenburg test for venous refill.

###
Distension within 5 seconds before the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence in the deep veins.

Distension within 5 seconds after the tourniquet is released indicates valvular incompetence of the superficial veins.

134

## Normal poundage in lumbar traction for initial treatment

### 15-25% of body weight, or around 30-45 lbs

135

## Treatment time for lumbar traction initially.

###
5 minutes for a brief trial.

Usually, initial sessions are limited to 5 minutes if symptoms are severe, or 10 minutes if symptoms are mild to moderate.

136

## Treatment time for lumbar traction for soft tissue stretch.

### 20-30 minutes (usually 25 minutes), given that the patient has previously tolerated traction.

137

## US using 3 Mhz affects tissues up to?

### 1-2 cm (<2 cm; superficial)

138

## US using 1 Mhz affects tissues up to?

###
2-5 cm (deep)

anything beyond 5 cm cannot be effectively treated by US.

139

##
Usual towel layers when applying hot packs.

What are the special cases?

###
6-8 towel layers.

4-6 may be used, as per the patient's response. Caution however, as increased tissue temperature has a decreased sensitivity to stimuli.

Hot pack covers count as 2 towel layers. Therefore, if using hot pack covers, 3-4 layers are usually enough.

140

## Usual temperature of hydrocollator where hot packs are stored.

### 70-75 degrees Celsius

141

## Hallway width to allow changing of directions while using a wheelchair.

### 36 inches (also the ideal width of doorways)

142

## The ligamentum flavum is _____% elastic cartilage.

###
80%

It is the ligament that contains the most elastic cartilage, giving it its yellow color; hence its other name, Yellow Ligament.

143

## Muscle power is greatest at _____% of the maximum load.

### 30%

144

## Physiologic curves in children become similar to that of adults at the age of?

### 10 months

145

## Cervical lordosis in children develops at what age?

### 2-3 months, upon developing head control

146

## Lumbar lordosis in children develops at what age?

### 10 months, upon developing standing and subsequently, walking.

147

## Normal physiologic varus in children is present at what age?

### 0-24 months (birth to 2 years)

148

## Normal physiologic valgus in children is present at what age?

### 2-7 years

149

## In full term infants, knee extension is limited by?

### 20 degrees

150

## Pinch grip strength of adult males

### 4-5 kg

151

## The xiphoid process ossifies and unites with the body of sternum at what age?

### 40 years

152

## On:off time for muscle re-education.

### 1:5

153

## On:off time for relieving muscle spasm.

### 1:1

154

## Percentage of the Corticospinal tracts that decussate.

###
80%

20% descends ipsilaterally.

155

## ROM of wrist radial deviation

### 0-20 degrees

156

## ROM of wrist ulnar deviation

### 0-30 degrees

157

## ROM of wrist extension

### 0-70 degrees

158

##
A nasal cannula used for supplemental O2 delivers a rate of _____ liters per minute.

Each liter increases O2 in the air by _____ percent.

###
1-6 liters per minute

4% per liter

Supplemental O2 mixes with room air, such that a flow rate of:

1 liter = 25% oxygenation

2 liters = 29% oxygenation

3 liters = 33% oxygenation

etc.

159

## Blood glucose indicative of hypoglycemia

### <70 mg/dL

160

## Compression garment pressure to prevent DVT

### 16-18 mmHg

161

## Compression garment pressure to control scar tissue formation

### 20-30 mmHg

162

## Compression garment pressure to control lower extremity edema

### 30-40 mmHg

163

## 1 MET corresponds to approximately how much increase in SBP?

### 10 mmHg

164

##
US duty cycle where there is no net increase in tissue temperature.

This mode is known as?

###
20% or less

Pulsed US.

165

## Pulmonary function tests are considered abnormal if values are not within _____% of the normal.

### 80%

166

## Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

### 34%

167

## Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 standard deviation above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

### 68%

168

## Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 1 and 2 standard deviations corresponds to _____% of the population.

### 14%

169

## Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above OR below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

### 48%

170

## Under a normal distribution curve, the area bounded 2 standard deviations above AND below the mean corresponds to _____% of the population.

### 96%

171

## In CKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?

###
0-30 degrees of knee flexion

This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in CKC are preferred initially.

172

## In OKC knee extension, PF joint reaction forces are lowest at?

###
90 degrees of flexion

This explains why terminal knee extension exercises in OKC are not preferred for initial treatment

173

## Q angle for males

### 13 degrees

174

## Q angle for females

### 18 degrees

175