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Flashcards in Nose Conditions Deck (11):
1

How is epistaxis classified?

Anterior or posterior - depending on the location of the bleed

2

What is epistaxis?

Nosebleed

3

What is more common...anterior or posterior epistaxis?

Anterior

4

Where do most episodes of anterior epistaxis arise from?

Little's Area (Kiesselbach's plexus) - an area of anastomosis at the front of the nasal septum

5

Where might the blood be visualised in an episode of posterior epistaxis?

Oropharynx - it might not be visible from the nose itself so look in the mouth

6

Which part of the nose should you apply pressure to in epistaxis?

The LOWER part of the nose - Advise the patient to breath through their mouth and to sit forward

7

What is the treatment for polyps?

Topical steroid drops (beclometasone)
Endoscopic polypectomy

8

What is Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome otherwise known as?

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

9

What are the diagnostic criteria for hereditary haemorrhage telangiectasia?

2 or more of the following = Probable HHT
3 or more of the following = Definite HHT
- Epistaxis: Spontaneous, recurrent nosebleeds
- Telangiectases: Multiple at characteristic sites (lips, oral cavity, fingers, nose)
- Visceral lesions: E.g. GI telangiectasia (with or without bleeding), arteriovenous malformations in lung, liver, brain, spine
- Family history: First-degree relative

10

What is the inheritance pattern of hereditary haemorrhage telangiectasia?

Autosomal dominant

11

Which test can be used to confirm whether rhinorrhoea consists of CSF and thus could have been caused by basal skull fracture?

Beta-2 transferrin - This is a protein only found in CSF and perilymph