Flashcards in Notes 10 - 14 Deck (158):
parish priest who encouraged the locals to free themselves from the spanish, but his forces were defeated.
liberator of Venezuela – creole elite
jose de san martin
liberator of argentine, Peru & chili – creole elite
strong leaders that rules by military force after the revolutions
aftermath of the revolutions
cuadillos, export economics (Britain), landowning elites
most important leader of “land reform” Mexico
mass society in the west
a society in which the concerns of the lower class is prominent
the belief in the triumph of socialism by peaceful and gradual methods
a system where the govt assumes responsibility for its citizens through welfare programs
universal manhood suffrage
“secret ballot” in the west
john stuart mill
wrote “on liberty”, leading feminist
founder of modern sociology, positivism
the belief that science is the only guide to acquiring/ explaining knowledge.
the only thing that exists is matter
people are motivated by instinct and emotion > not God or morals
the subconscious mind
“special theory of relativity” > space and time not absolute and cannot be separated from human existence > attacks newton and the world machine
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
believes in a master race > aryans started western culture
Mayor of Vienna > “jews are the problem”
the Dreyfus affair
captain Alfred Dreyfus (french jew) falsely accused of selling secrets to Prussia
Russia – official state policy to harass the jews
the belief that Jewish people deserve a nation state located in the holy land
Otto Von Bismark
key person in the franco Prussian war
causes of WW1
alliance system, militarism, imperialism
the alliance system
triple alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) vs triple entente (Britain, France, Russia)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
of Germany, succeeds Bismark, builds navy like Britain
rivalries over morocco – last country to be taken
the balkans rivalries
ottoman empire > b/w Serbia and slav's over territory
Austria annex Bosnia
Serbians look for opportunities to get sarajevo Bosnia
assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand by the black hand (terrorist organization of Serbian govt) June 28, 1914
Germans offer to Austria, whatever they need to attack Serbia
Germany's plans to attack France first, then Russia
1914-Nov. 11, 1918 - treaty of versailles
Germany, Austria-Hungary, ottoman empire (turkey)
Britain, France, Russia
started by Germany
no mans land
zone b/w the opposing trenches
over the top
soldiers climbing out their trenches
battle of verdun
1916 b/w France and Germany “the inferno” 3 square miles
Britain's naval blockade
Thomas E Lawrence
“Lawrence of Arabia”
the Russian revolution
Czar Nicolas II
last of the Romanov dynasty, commander of the army that keeps getting defeated
leader of the provisional govt and sets up democracy > continues the war despite everyone wanting to end it
the council of workers and soldiers deputies
marxist, leninism, leader of Bolsheviks > trains vanguards special group to take land, peace and bread
2 fazes of revolution
treaty of Brest-litovsk 1918
peace treaty w/ Germany to stop the war and gives Germany a part of Russia
the USSR aka the soviet union
led by Lennon
last year of the war
Germany goes back to it being unrestricted
supports Britain and France, goes to war with Germany
1918 – Germany signs it to stop the war
the peace settlement
US so successful in stopping the war, can dictate the peace > 14 points
paris peace conference
1919 > treaty of Versailles – Germany has to pay Britain and France 33 billion dollars in reparations b/c they started the war
peace treaty > Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina come together and renamed
the mandate system in the middle east
supposedly these countries were to be “tutored” until they were ready to be independent
The issue of Reparations
the German Government was unable pay the amount it owed after 1921
The Dawes Plan
American banker Charles Dawes works out a plan to reduce the amount Germany owed. It was based on Germany’s ability to pay. American bankers loaned Germany money in order to help it pay back the reparations, and to help bring about a German economic recovery.
Treaty of Locarno (1925)
countries that signed it agreed that any border disputes would be submitted to peaceful settlement. It represented what many at the time thought to be a “New era of peace.”
Crisis in the Democratic Countries
In the 1930s, economic conditions worsened in the countries that had triumphed in World War I, the Western democracies, so that the ideology of democracy (associated with capitalism) was increasingly under attack.
The Great Depression (1930s)
Economic decline in the USA, spreads to other countries; a time of mass unemployment, homelessness, suffering and desperation.
more intervention in economic activity (using World War I examples) to create jobs and extend welfare measures.
John Maynard Keynes
created the economic philosophy known as “Keynesianism‐” government engages in deficit spending to stimulate “public works” (roads, bridges, airports‐to put people to work).
The “New Deal
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s program which used Keynesian measures and which created the early “welfare state” to try and combat the Depression.
Lenin’s “New Economic Policy” (1921)
with economic activity stagnant, Lenin introduces “limited capitalism:”‐ peasants can sell produce on the market to get extra money; small businesses with less than 20 employees were allowed to be privately owned. Result‐Soviet Agricultural Production rises by 75% by 1924.
cause: the rise of modern nationalism
native elites will lead revolutions
leads the great resistance in india, indian people need to break away from western culture, wants hindu govt
“insistence on truth”
Indians were only supposed to buy salt from Britain, so they marched in protest – led by Gandhi
Prime minister of india, wants freedom from Britain and secular govt
Mohammad Ali Jinnah
leader of Pakistan and founder of the Muslim league > wants nation for muslims
“Ataturk” meaning “father turk”creates modern and secular Turkey
mandate system – France
control of Lebanon and Syria
mandate system – Britain
Iraq, Jordan palestine
shaw of Iran, modernize Shi’ite
led the Jewish community in Britain and America into believing that Great Britain would support the creation of a Jewish state in palestine
military dictatorship set up after collapse of Qing dynasty. After military dictatorship, China broken up into different sanctions governed by warlords
led the nationalists in china
led the CCP – Chinese communist party
CCP and nationalists team up to defeat the warlords, then nationalist fight CCP
the long march
Mao and his soldiers trek to Yan'un (remote mountainous area) to evade the pursuit of the nationalists
total control over economic, political, social, intellectual, cultural aspects of society > one political party, abolish civil liberties, dictator, propaganda, cult of the leader, police state
epitome of totalitarian > Communist of Soviet Union
JS's 5 years plan
to speed up process of modernization, forces it on the people
JS's collectivization of agriculture
believed production would increase if he ordered farms and peasants collectivized into units
JS's the purges
elimination of political opponents
Fascist of Italy > supremacy of state, violence for societal transformation, obedience to dictator, supports business leaders by forcing them to make weapons, but lets them keep profits,
type of fascism with focus on antisemitism
the weimar republic
The weak german govt after the war that people hate, so they turn to hitler
autobiographical manifesto by Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
theory that German's need more living space
parliament that was burned down and hitler named himself chancellor
purpose to deprive jews of german citizenship and restrict procreating with them
the night of burning and destroying jewish synagogues and businesses. Jews captured and sent to concentration camps
Rise of the Militarists (Ultra nationalists), invade manchuria 1931
The Yalta Conference
1945Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin meet to discuss the Allied war effort against Germany and Japan and to try and settle some nagging diplomatic issues. Tensions over European issues—particularly the fate of Poland—foreshadowed the crumbling of the Grand Alliance that had developed between the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union during World War II and hinted at the Cold War to come.
The Cold War
1945-89 > rivalries b/w US and Russia Stalin breaks his promise of free elections
erected by the Soviet Union after World War II to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact with the West and other noncommunist areas.
Germany divided after WW2
Allies in the west and Soviets in the east
divided Berlin into four zones > each of the victorious nations controlled one zone and one sector of Berlin.
the US policy > will drop bombs if soviets move into other countries
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
military organization to stop a communist organization
leader of the peasants > communist, defeats the nationalists who flee to taiwan. Pledge of eternal friendship with Stalin
the korean war
1950-53 communist N. Korea vs non-communist S. Korea
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister, studied in France
Dien Bien Phu
1954 – the climactic confrontation of the Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries. Led to permanent partition b/w N. Vietnam (communist) and S. Vietnam (non-communist)
United Nation's Partition
1947 plan for Palestine called for land to be parceled to Arabs and Jews.
Proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. 1st Prime Minister of Israel & major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization.
Gamal Abdul Nasser
President of Egypt,planned the overthrow of the monarchy, and was deputy prime minister in the new government. 1st leader of an Arab nation who challenged what was perceived as the western dominance of the Middle East.
1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, which was controlled by French and British interests. 2nd Arab-Israeli War
Palestinian leader of the PLO (palestinian liberation organization), won the nobel peace prize
PLO (palestinian liberation organization)
Terrorist organization whose goal was the “liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle while seeking to destroy the existence of Zionism in the Middle East.
six day war
1967, Israel vs Syria, Jordan & Egypt > Israelis defended the war as a preventative military effort to counter what the Israelis saw as an impending attack by Arab nations that surrounded Israel.
one-time president of Egypt who shared the Nobel Peace Prize for establishing peace agreements with Israel.
Yon Kippur War
1973 - a surprise Arab attack on Israel on yon kippur Jewish holiday, but Israel had survived and had pushed back the nations that had initially broken through Israel’s defenses.
camp david accords
1978 – “Framework for Peace in the Middle East”. Brokered by Jimmy Carter between Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian Prez Anwar el-Sādāt
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
forced out of power by the Socialists who immediately nationalized the Oil industry. 1953‐the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) engineers a coup, brings the Shah back into power.
Westernization in Iran
American oil companies move into Iran, bringing in U.S. citizens and their values: clothes, music, movies.
The 1979 Revolution
Shi’ites who were traditional in supporting Islamic values believed the Americans were destroying Islamic culture overthrew the Shah’s government, and the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini became the new leader, setting up the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is ruled by the countries religious leaders (a Shi’ite theocracy).
extremely anti‐American, and in October 1979, ordered the seizure of U.S. personal in the American embassy in Teheran (52 Americans were held captive during the Hostage Crisis of 1979‐1980).
the liberation of colonial territories through national independence movements.
The British exit
The British decide to leave India after World War II.
Partition south Asia
(1947) India was divided into two separate states, India and Pakistan (the latter a goal of the Muslim League)
The disputed territory of Kashmir
both countries claim it, still a continuous source of friction between them.
the liberation of colonial territories through national independence movements.
the Struggle by Africans to achieve decolonization
Causes of african independence movements
(1) Europe‐greatly weakened by WW II, now declining in terms of World influence. (2) African nationalism could not be suppressed (3) the United Nations Charter‐a source of inspiration since it stated that all peoples have the right to self‐determination. (4) Rise of two charismatic leaders in Ghana and Kenya, respectively,‐both men started mass political parties to achieve independence from the British
(1909‐1972) founder of the first independent state in Africa (modern Ghana) and the leading advocate of pan‐Africanism.
(1894‐1978) founder of the modern state of Kenya
unification of the African continent without regard to national boundaries‐based on racial pride (“blackness”) and the belief that African peoples share a common culture and destiny. The group which typified this dream was the OAU (Organization of African Unity).
Afrikaner National Party sets up Apartheid (apartness‐system of racial segregation) in 1948.
African National Congress
established to resist Apartheid.
(1918‐2013). Leader of ANC Imprisoned by the South African Government for 27 years, he was released in 1990 and was later elected the first Black President of South Africa. One of the great men of the Twentieth Century, he forgave his captors and refused to use his power to seek revenge against the supporters of Apartheid.
The Great Depression in Latin America
1930s‐Latin American economies were greatly affected by the economic downturn because of the decline in exports due to lower consumer demand in U.S. and Europe. Latin American leaders turned to the process of industrialization to promote growth at home. There was an increased turn towards authoritarianism as military leaders took over governments to oversee the process of industrialization.
military leader of Argentina appealed to workers and the urban middle class by adopting industrialization. He was popular for his opposition to foreign corporations in his ￼ country. While Peron was a Fascist, he did use the government to take over banking, shipping and insurance industries.
Anti‐Americanism in Latin America
grew more prevalent in the twentieth century as Latin Americans chaffed at the “dependency” of their countries’ economies on U.S. corporations. Believing the U.S. to be “an aggressive imperialist power”, some Latin Americans increasingly became Marxists as a result.
The Cuban Revolution
(1959)‐the template for a successful Marxist Revolution was designed by Fidel Castro of Cuba, a Marxist who overthrew the Cuban government in 1959. His chief assistant was Ernesto “Ché” Guevara, a Bolivian who deeply hated the United States and desired to spread Marxist Revolution throughout Latin America.
The Democracy Movement
in the 1980s, more countries in Latin America rejected the Authoritarian model and began adopting democracy.
The Vietnam War
part of the Cold War between the USA and USSR.
pro‐Soviet Union‐led by Ho Chi Minh
South Vietnamese Communists‐who tried to undermine the Government of South Vietnam (GSV) by attacking the countries transportation and electrical systems. They hoped to so weaken the GSV that it would be easy for the north to invade and conquer it. The Viet Cong receives weapons from the U.S.S.R.
U.S. troops enter the war
1965 to help the army of the GSV fight the VC . Over 500,000 American troops in South Vietnam by 1968. USA believes it crucial to contain the spread of Soviet Communism.
1968 turning point of the War‐VC and the North Vietnamese army surprise American forces on the Vietnamese New Year of Tet. Up to this point, President Lyndon Johnson had told the American public that the U.S. was “winning” in South Vietnam. Now, it was obvious that the war was “stalemated.”
1973 President Nixon is able to sign a peace accord with North Vietnam to end the war.
Fall of South Vietnam
1975 the Army of North Vietnam defeats the South Vietnamese Army, bringing about unification under the control of the Government of North Vietnam.
Why the Cold War ended
(1) The Sino‐Soviet split (2) Richard Nixon’s visit to China (3) Ronald Reagan’s arms buildup (4) Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies (5) The End of the Soviet Union followed – 1991
The Sino‐Soviet split
(1964)‐ China disagreed with the U.S.S.R. over communist ideology especially with regard to revolutions in the third world. This broke up Communist unity. Eventually the two would fight a major border war in 1969.
Richard Nixon’s visit to China
(1972)U.S. President Nixon plays his “China card,” opening up relations between the U.S. and China. This would cause the Soviets to put even more troops on its border with China.
Ronald Reagan’s arms buildup
(1980s)‐The Soviets could not keep up with Reagan’s arms increase, forcing them to bankrupt their economy as they tried to do so.
Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies
(1985‐1989)‐ Gorbachev began the policy of glasnost, or openness. It was now possible for citizens to criticize the Soviet system, which weakened loyalty to it. Glasnost also gave the people a taste of democracy because it allowed them to have choices in the electoral process.