Notes 10 - 14 Flashcards Preview

History > Notes 10 - 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Notes 10 - 14 Deck (158):
1

Father Hidalgo

parish priest who encouraged the locals to free themselves from the spanish, but his forces were defeated.

2

Simon Bolivar

liberator of Venezuela – creole elite

3

jose de san martin

liberator of argentine, Peru & chili – creole elite

4

cuadillos

strong leaders that rules by military force after the revolutions

5

aftermath of the revolutions

cuadillos, export economics (Britain), landowning elites

6

Mexico revolution

1910

7

Emiliano Zapata

most important leader of “land reform” Mexico

8

mass society in the west

a society in which the concerns of the lower class is prominent

9

fabianism

the belief in the triumph of socialism by peaceful and gradual methods

10

welfare state

a system where the govt assumes responsibility for its citizens through welfare programs

11

universal manhood suffrage

“secret ballot” in the west

12

john stuart mill

wrote “on liberty”, leading feminist

13

emily Pankhurst

suffragist

14

Auguste Comte

founder of modern sociology, positivism

15

positivism

the belief that science is the only guide to acquiring/ explaining knowledge.

16

materialism

the only thing that exists is matter

17

Friedrich Nietzsche

people are motivated by instinct and emotion > not God or morals

18

Sigmund Freud

the subconscious mind

19

Albert Einstein

“special theory of relativity” > space and time not absolute and cannot be separated from human existence > attacks newton and the world machine

20

Houston Stewart Chamberlain

believes in a master race > aryans started western culture

21

Karl Lugar

Mayor of Vienna > “jews are the problem”

22

the Dreyfus affair

captain Alfred Dreyfus (french jew) falsely accused of selling secrets to Prussia

23

Pogram

Russia – official state policy to harass the jews

24

Theodore Herzel

jewish zionist

25

zionism

the belief that Jewish people deserve a nation state located in the holy land

26

Otto Von Bismark

key person in the franco Prussian war

27

causes of WW1

alliance system, militarism, imperialism

28

the alliance system

triple alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) vs triple entente (Britain, France, Russia)

29

Kaiser Wilhelm II

of Germany, succeeds Bismark, builds navy like Britain

30

imperialism

rivalries over morocco – last country to be taken

31

the balkans rivalries

ottoman empire > b/w Serbia and slav's over territory

32

Austria annex Bosnia

Serbians look for opportunities to get sarajevo Bosnia

33

the “spark”

assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand by the black hand (terrorist organization of Serbian govt) June 28, 1914

34

“blank check”

Germans offer to Austria, whatever they need to attack Serbia

35

schlieffen plan

Germany's plans to attack France first, then Russia

36

dates WW1

1914-Nov. 11, 1918 - treaty of versailles

37

central powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, ottoman empire (turkey)

38

allied powers

Britain, France, Russia

39

trench warfare

started by Germany

40

no mans land

zone b/w the opposing trenches

41

over the top

soldiers climbing out their trenches

42

battle of verdun

1916 b/w France and Germany “the inferno” 3 square miles

43

Britain's naval blockade

on Germany

44

u boats

german submarines

45

Thomas E Lawrence

“Lawrence of Arabia”

46

the Russian revolution

1917

47

Czar Nicolas II

last of the Romanov dynasty, commander of the army that keeps getting defeated

48

Alexander Kerensky

leader of the provisional govt and sets up democracy > continues the war despite everyone wanting to end it

49

the “soviets”

the council of workers and soldiers deputies

50

Vladimir Lennon

marxist, leninism, leader of Bolsheviks > trains vanguards special group to take land, peace and bread

51

november revolution

2 fazes of revolution

52

treaty of Brest-litovsk 1918

peace treaty w/ Germany to stop the war and gives Germany a part of Russia

53

the USSR aka the soviet union

led by Lennon

54

last year of the war

1918

55

submarine warfare

Germany goes back to it being unrestricted

56

Woodrow wilson

supports Britain and France, goes to war with Germany

57

armistice

1918 – Germany signs it to stop the war

58

the peace settlement

US so successful in stopping the war, can dictate the peace > 14 points

59

paris peace conference

1919 > treaty of Versailles – Germany has to pay Britain and France 33 billion dollars in reparations b/c they started the war

60

Yugoslavia

peace treaty > Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina come together and renamed

61

the mandate system in the middle east

supposedly these countries were to be “tutored” until they were ready to be independent

62

The issue of Reparations

the German Government was unable pay the amount it owed after 1921

63

The Dawes Plan

American banker Charles Dawes works out a plan to reduce the amount Germany owed. It was based on Germany’s ability to pay. American bankers loaned Germany money in order to help it pay back the reparations, and to help bring about a German economic recovery.

64

Treaty of Locarno (1925)

countries that signed it agreed that any border disputes would be submitted to peaceful settlement. It represented what many at the time thought to be a “New era of peace.”

65

Crisis in the Democratic Countries

In the 1930s, economic conditions worsened in the countries that had triumphed in World War I, the Western democracies, so that the ideology of democracy (associated with capitalism) was increasingly under attack.

66

The Great Depression (1930s)

Economic decline in the USA, spreads to other countries; a time of mass unemployment, homelessness, suffering and desperation.

67

Government Responses

more intervention in economic activity (using World War I examples) to create jobs and extend welfare measures.

68

John Maynard Keynes

created the economic philosophy known as “Keynesianism‐” government engages in deficit spending to stimulate “public works” (roads, bridges, airports‐to put people to work).

69

The “New Deal

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s program which used Keynesian measures and which created the early “welfare state” to try and combat the Depression.

70

Lenin’s “New Economic Policy” (1921)

with economic activity stagnant, Lenin introduces “limited capitalism:”‐ peasants can sell produce on the market to get extra money; small businesses with less than 20 employees were allowed to be privately owned. Result‐Soviet Agricultural Production rises by 75% by 1924.

71

cause: the rise of modern nationalism

native elites will lead revolutions

72

Gandhi

leads the great resistance in india, indian people need to break away from western culture, wants hindu govt

73

satyagraha

“insistence on truth”

74

mahatma

“great soul”

75

salt march

Indians were only supposed to buy salt from Britain, so they marched in protest – led by Gandhi

76

Jawaharal Nehru

Prime minister of india, wants freedom from Britain and secular govt

77

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

leader of Pakistan and founder of the Muslim league > wants nation for muslims

78

Mustafa Kemal

“Ataturk” meaning “father turk”creates modern and secular Turkey

79

mandate system – France

control of Lebanon and Syria

80

mandate system – Britain

Iraq, Jordan palestine

81

Reza Khan

shaw of Iran, modernize Shi’ite

82

Balfour declaration

led the Jewish community in Britain and America into believing that Great Britain would support the creation of a Jewish state in palestine

83

China

military dictatorship set up after collapse of Qing dynasty. After military dictatorship, China broken up into different sanctions governed by warlords

84

Chiang Kai-shke

led the nationalists in china

85

Mao Zedong

led the CCP – Chinese communist party

86

northern expedition

CCP and nationalists team up to defeat the warlords, then nationalist fight CCP

87

the long march

Mao and his soldiers trek to Yan'un (remote mountainous area) to evade the pursuit of the nationalists

88

totalitarianism

total control over economic, political, social, intellectual, cultural aspects of society > one political party, abolish civil liberties, dictator, propaganda, cult of the leader, police state

89

Joseph Stalin

epitome of totalitarian > Communist of Soviet Union

90

JS's 5 years plan

to speed up process of modernization, forces it on the people

91

JS's collectivization of agriculture

believed production would increase if he ordered farms and peasants collectivized into units

92

JS's the purges

elimination of political opponents

93

Benito Mussolini

Fascist of Italy > supremacy of state, violence for societal transformation, obedience to dictator, supports business leaders by forcing them to make weapons, but lets them keep profits,

94

nazism

type of fascism with focus on antisemitism

95

the weimar republic

The weak german govt after the war that people hate, so they turn to hitler

96

Mein Kampf

autobiographical manifesto by Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.

97

Lebensraum

theory that German's need more living space

98

Reichstag

parliament that was burned down and hitler named himself chancellor

99

Nuremberg laws

purpose to deprive jews of german citizenship and restrict procreating with them

100

kristallancht

the night of burning and destroying jewish synagogues and businesses. Jews captured and sent to concentration camps

101

japan

Rise of the Militarists (Ultra nationalists), invade manchuria 1931

102

The Yalta Conference

1945Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin meet to discuss the Allied war effort against Germany and Japan and to try and settle some nagging diplomatic issues. Tensions over European issues—particularly the fate of Poland—foreshadowed the crumbling of the Grand Alliance that had developed between the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union during World War II and hinted at the Cold War to come.

103

The Cold War

1945-89 > rivalries b/w US and Russia Stalin breaks his promise of free elections

104

Iron Curtain

erected by the Soviet Union after World War II to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact with the West and other noncommunist areas.

105

Germany divided after WW2

Allies in the west and Soviets in the east

106

berlin divided

divided Berlin into four zones > each of the victorious nations controlled one zone and one sector of Berlin.

107

containment

the US policy > will drop bombs if soviets move into other countries

108

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

military organization to stop a communist organization

109

Mao Zedong

leader of the peasants > communist, defeats the nationalists who flee to taiwan. Pledge of eternal friendship with Stalin

110

the korean war

1950-53 communist N. Korea vs non-communist S. Korea

111

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister, studied in France

112

Dien Bien Phu

1954 – the climactic confrontation of the Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries. Led to permanent partition b/w N. Vietnam (communist) and S. Vietnam (non-communist)

113

United Nation's Partition

1947 plan for Palestine called for land to be parceled to Arabs and Jews.

114

David Ben-Gurion

Proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. 1st Prime Minister of Israel & major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization.

115

Gamal Abdul Nasser

President of Egypt,planned the overthrow of the monarchy, and was deputy prime minister in the new government. 1st leader of an Arab nation who challenged what was perceived as the western dominance of the Middle East.

116

Suez Crisis

1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, which was controlled by French and British interests. 2nd Arab-Israeli War

117

Yasir Arafat

Palestinian leader of the PLO (palestinian liberation organization), won the nobel peace prize

118

PLO (palestinian liberation organization)

Terrorist organization whose goal was the “liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle while seeking to destroy the existence of Zionism in the Middle East.

119

six day war

1967, Israel vs Syria, Jordan & Egypt > Israelis defended the war as a preventative military effort to counter what the Israelis saw as an impending attack by Arab nations that surrounded Israel.

120

Anwar Sadat

one-time president of Egypt who shared the Nobel Peace Prize for establishing peace agreements with Israel.

121

Yon Kippur War

1973 - a surprise Arab attack on Israel on yon kippur Jewish holiday, but Israel had survived and had pushed back the nations that had initially broken through Israel’s defenses.

122

camp david accords

1978 – “Framework for Peace in the Middle East”. Brokered by Jimmy Carter between Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian Prez Anwar el-Sādāt

123

Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi

forced out of power by the Socialists who immediately nationalized the Oil industry. 1953‐the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) engineers a coup, brings the Shah back into power.

124

Westernization in Iran

American oil companies move into Iran, bringing in U.S. citizens and their values: clothes, music, movies.

125

The 1979 Revolution

Shi’ites who were traditional in supporting Islamic values believed the Americans were destroying Islamic culture overthrew the Shah’s government, and the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini became the new leader, setting up the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is ruled by the countries religious leaders (a Shi’ite theocracy).

126

Khomeini

extremely anti‐American, and in October 1979, ordered the seizure of U.S. personal in the American embassy in Teheran (52 Americans were held captive during the Hostage Crisis of 1979‐1980).

127

Decolonization

the liberation of colonial territories through national independence movements.

128

The British exit

The British decide to leave India after World War II.

129

Partition south Asia

(1947) India was divided into two separate states, India and Pakistan (the latter a goal of the Muslim League)

130

The disputed territory of Kashmir

both countries claim it, still a continuous source of friction between them.

131

Decolonization

the liberation of colonial territories through national independence movements.

132

Uhuru

the Struggle by Africans to achieve decolonization

133

Causes of african independence movements

(1) Europe‐greatly weakened by WW II, now declining in terms of World influence. (2) African nationalism could not be suppressed (3) the United Nations Charter‐a source of inspiration since it stated that all peoples have the right to self‐determination. (4) Rise of two charismatic leaders in Ghana and Kenya, respectively,‐both men started mass political parties to achieve independence from the British

134

Kwame Nkrumah

(1909‐1972) founder of the first independent state in Africa (modern Ghana) and the leading advocate of pan‐Africanism.

135

Jomo Kenyatta

(1894‐1978) founder of the modern state of Kenya

136

Pan‐Africanism

unification of the African continent without regard to national boundaries‐based on racial pride (“blackness”) and the belief that African peoples share a common culture and destiny. The group which typified this dream was the OAU (Organization of African Unity).

137

South Africa

Afrikaner National Party sets up Apartheid (apartness‐system of racial segregation) in 1948.

138

African National Congress

established to resist Apartheid.

139

Nelson Mandela

(1918‐2013). Leader of ANC Imprisoned by the South African Government for 27 years, he was released in 1990 and was later elected the first Black President of South Africa. One of the great men of the Twentieth Century, he forgave his captors and refused to use his power to seek revenge against the supporters of Apartheid.

140

The Great Depression in Latin America

1930s‐Latin American economies were greatly affected by the economic downturn because of the decline in exports due to lower consumer demand in U.S. and Europe. Latin American leaders turned to the process of industrialization to promote growth at home. There was an increased turn towards authoritarianism as military leaders took over governments to oversee the process of industrialization.

141

Juan Peron

military leader of Argentina appealed to workers and the urban middle class by adopting industrialization. He was popular for his opposition to foreign corporations in his  country. While Peron was a Fascist, he did use the government to take over banking, shipping and insurance industries.

142

Anti‐Americanism in Latin America

grew more prevalent in the twentieth century as Latin Americans chaffed at the “dependency” of their countries’ economies on U.S. corporations. Believing the U.S. to be “an aggressive imperialist power”, some Latin Americans increasingly became Marxists as a result.

143

The Cuban Revolution

(1959)‐the template for a successful Marxist Revolution was designed by Fidel Castro of Cuba, a Marxist who overthrew the Cuban government in 1959. His chief assistant was Ernesto “Ché” Guevara, a Bolivian who deeply hated the United States and desired to spread Marxist Revolution throughout Latin America.

144

The Democracy Movement

in the 1980s, more countries in Latin America rejected the Authoritarian model and began adopting democracy.

145

The Vietnam War

part of the Cold War between the USA and USSR.

146

North Vietnam

pro‐Soviet Union‐led by Ho Chi Minh

147

South Vietnam

Pro US

148

Viet Cong

South Vietnamese Communists‐who tried to undermine the Government of South Vietnam (GSV) by attacking the countries transportation and electrical systems. They hoped to so weaken the GSV that it would be easy for the north to invade and conquer it. The Viet Cong receives weapons from the U.S.S.R.

149

U.S. troops enter the war

1965 to help the army of the GSV fight the VC . Over 500,000 American troops in South Vietnam by 1968. USA believes it crucial to contain the spread of Soviet Communism.

150

Tet Offensive

1968 turning point of the War‐VC and the North Vietnamese army surprise American forces on the Vietnamese New Year of Tet. Up to this point, President Lyndon Johnson had told the American public that the U.S. was “winning” in South Vietnam. Now, it was obvious that the war was “stalemated.”

151

Peace Treaty

1973 President Nixon is able to sign a peace accord with North Vietnam to end the war.

152

Fall of South Vietnam

1975 the Army of North Vietnam defeats the South Vietnamese Army, bringing about unification under the control of the Government of North Vietnam.

153

Why the Cold War ended

(1) The Sino‐Soviet split (2) Richard Nixon’s visit to China (3) Ronald Reagan’s arms buildup (4) Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies (5) The End of the Soviet Union followed – 1991

154

The Sino‐Soviet split

(1964)‐ China disagreed with the U.S.S.R. over communist ideology especially with regard to revolutions in the third world. This broke up Communist unity. Eventually the two would fight a major border war in 1969.

155

Richard Nixon’s visit to China

(1972)U.S. President Nixon plays his “China card,” opening up relations between the U.S. and China. This would cause the Soviets to put even more troops on its border with China.

156

Ronald Reagan’s arms buildup

(1980s)‐The Soviets could not keep up with Reagan’s arms increase, forcing them to bankrupt their economy as they tried to do so.

157

Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies

(1985‐1989)‐ Gorbachev began the policy of glasnost, or openness. It was now possible for citizens to criticize the Soviet system, which weakened loyalty to it. Glasnost also gave the people a taste of democracy because it allowed them to have choices in the electoral process.

158

Sarajevo, Bosnia

location of the "spark"