Flashcards in Notes 6 - Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (44):
Leader of France and a member of the House of Bourbon took power in 1589 (to 1610). Converted to Catholicism to be accepted by catholic France. Wars of religion were finally over. Issued the Edict of Nantes which made Catholicism the official religion of France, but still allowed the Huguenots the right to worship.Later assassinated
Succeeded Henry IV, but appointed Cardinal Richelieu to run the country because he wanted the title of king, but didn’t want to do work. Of France
French clergyman who wants France to be powerful and for king to be most powerful. Went after Huguenot cities.
an Italian politician, who served as the chief minister of France. Succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. Nobles attacked because they wanted a french man in power.
(1661-1715) “the sun king”. Was 18 when he took full power and became most powerful/wealthy of all of Europe Ruled by “divine right”. Of France
Divine right monarchy
Absolutism > ultimate authority in the hands of a king who claimed to receive their power from God.
Madame de Maintenon
the second wife of King Louis XIV of France, who “tamed him”
a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
idea that central govt should be in control of the economy > export more than import
Palace of Versailles
Largest palace ever & built during Louis XIV's reign. Brought nobles here to control them and to wait on him.
Louis' Four wars
(1667-1713) Spends the entire surplus fighting wars to become even more powerful, but loses all 4 and spends the entire surplus, where he has to start borrowing money and ends with lots of debt.
“Balance of power”
distribution of power b/w nation-states so that one nation cannot get too powerful. Nations banded together to defeat France.
From Muscovy to Russia
After mongols were ejected, a new Russian state had emerged, and the Prince's of Muscovy were getting stronger.
(1547-1584) “The terrible”. The first ruler to take the title of Czar. Is ruthless and kills his own son.
Russian national assembly who elected Mikhail Romanov to take over after Ivan
1613 – Czar who established a dynasty lasting until 1917
“creating surfs” > below a peasant and bound to land with no power > agricultural workers
Peter the Great
(1689-1725) Succeeded Romanov. Traveled Europe and came back with a determination to westernize Russia. Russia went from medieval to modern, with no renaissance period.
New capital city of St. Petersburg
Peter acquired it by defeating Sweden
Acquired by Prussia by war > a small open territory with no natural frontiers for defense
Frederick William I
(1713-1740) “The sergeant king” of Prussia. Built the 4th largest army in Europe and required service of 3mo/year
Book written by Thomas Hobbs (1651) defending absolutism
Resistance to absolute monarchy in England
King and parliament struggled to determine the role each should play on governing England
The english parliament
Bicameral – Upper house of Lords (rich people) and Lower house of Commons (knight-gave permission for tax increases)
The Stuart Monarchs
The Stuart line of rulers were inaugurated after the death of Queen Elizabeth, and her cousin James I took over.
(1603-1625) Adopted the “divine right of kings” viewpoint and wanted to “purify” the anglican church, (they were too catholic) which alienated the parliament, and led to conflict
(1625-1649) Son of James I.
The Parliament had not voted any taxation and Charles desperately needed money, so he levied a forced “loan”.
Charles I constantly violated HC where the courts were supposed to examine the lawfulness of a prisoner's detention.
Court of Star Chamber
Govt using torture and where trials happen in secret
Quartering of soldiers
housed soldiers in the homes of civilians to save money, and the soldiers were immune to local law
people on coast were to pay ship tax > but really made everyone pay this tax
English Civil War
(1642-1648) Parliament vs King. Parliament wins and Charles I executed
Leader of Parliamentary forces and the new model army
New Model Army
Composed of extreme puritans who believed they were doing battle for God > didn’t curse or drink
(1649-1658) Parliament abolished the monarchy and and proclaimed England as a commonwealth (republic). But Cromwell was unable to work effectively with parliament so he dispersed it with force and established a military dictatorship.
After Cromwell's death, the army decided that military rule was no longer feasible and restored the monarchy, appointing Charles II king
(1660-1685) son of Charles I. Established the secret Treaty of Dover, where he would convert England to Catholicism for money
(1685-1688) Succeeds Charles II. Is a devout catholic which became a major source of conflict b/w him and parliament. Although he already had 2 daughters (Mary and Anne were protestants), the birth of his son created fear that a catholic hereditary monarchy was to come, inciting the Glorious Revolution
The “glorious revolution”
1688 – English noblemen invited William of Orange (husband of James' daughter Mary) to invade England Little bloodshed
William and Mary
(1688-1702) Parliament offered the throne to them along with the provisions of a bill of rights which gave the parliament the right to make laws and levy taxes.
Bill of rights
passed by parliament in 1689 > king and queen are chosen officials and not absolute > establishment of limited (constitutional) monarchy)