Notes 6 - Absolutism and Constitutionalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Notes 6 - Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (44):
1

Henry IV

Leader of France and a member of the House of Bourbon took power in 1589 (to 1610). Converted to Catholicism to be accepted by catholic France. Wars of religion were finally over. Issued the Edict of Nantes which made Catholicism the official religion of France, but still allowed the Huguenots the right to worship.Later assassinated

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Huguenot

French calvinists

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Louis XIII

Succeeded Henry IV, but appointed Cardinal Richelieu to run the country because he wanted the title of king, but didn’t want to do work. Of France

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Cardinal Richelieu

French clergyman who wants France to be powerful and for king to be most powerful. Went after Huguenot cities.

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Cardinal Mazarin

an Italian politician, who served as the chief minister of France. Succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. Nobles attacked because they wanted a french man in power.

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Louis XIV

(1661-1715) “the sun king”. Was 18 when he took full power and became most powerful/wealthy of all of Europe Ruled by “divine right”. Of France

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Divine right monarchy

Absolutism > ultimate authority in the hands of a king who claimed to receive their power from God.

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Madame de Maintenon

the second wife of King Louis XIV of France, who “tamed him”

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Jean-Baptist Colbert

a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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mercantilism

idea that central govt should be in control of the economy > export more than import

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Palace of Versailles

Largest palace ever & built during Louis XIV's reign. Brought nobles here to control them and to wait on him.

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Louis' Four wars

(1667-1713) Spends the entire surplus fighting wars to become even more powerful, but loses all 4 and spends the entire surplus, where he has to start borrowing money and ends with lots of debt.

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“Balance of power”

distribution of power b/w nation-states so that one nation cannot get too powerful. Nations banded together to defeat France.

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From Muscovy to Russia

After mongols were ejected, a new Russian state had emerged, and the Prince's of Muscovy were getting stronger.

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Ivan IV

(1547-1584) “The terrible”. The first ruler to take the title of Czar. Is ruthless and kills his own son.

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Zemsky Sobor

Russian national assembly who elected Mikhail Romanov to take over after Ivan

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Mikhail Romanov

1613 – Czar who established a dynasty lasting until 1917

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Ensurfment

“creating surfs” > below a peasant and bound to land with no power > agricultural workers

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Peter the Great

(1689-1725) Succeeded Romanov. Traveled Europe and came back with a determination to westernize Russia. Russia went from medieval to modern, with no renaissance period.

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New capital city of St. Petersburg

Peter acquired it by defeating Sweden

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Brandenburg

Acquired by Prussia by war > a small open territory with no natural frontiers for defense

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Frederick William I

(1713-1740) “The sergeant king” of Prussia. Built the 4th largest army in Europe and required service of 3mo/year

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“Leviathan”

Book written by Thomas Hobbs (1651) defending absolutism

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Resistance to absolute monarchy in England

King and parliament struggled to determine the role each should play on governing England

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The english parliament

Bicameral – Upper house of Lords (rich people) and Lower house of Commons (knight-gave permission for tax increases)

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The Stuart Monarchs

The Stuart line of rulers were inaugurated after the death of Queen Elizabeth, and her cousin James I took over.

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James I

(1603-1625) Adopted the “divine right of kings” viewpoint and wanted to “purify” the anglican church, (they were too catholic) which alienated the parliament, and led to conflict

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Charles I

(1625-1649) Son of James I.

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Forced loans

The Parliament had not voted any taxation and Charles desperately needed money, so he levied a forced “loan”.

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Habeas Corpus

Charles I constantly violated HC where the courts were supposed to examine the lawfulness of a prisoner's detention.

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Court of Star Chamber

Govt using torture and where trials happen in secret

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Quartering of soldiers

housed soldiers in the homes of civilians to save money, and the soldiers were immune to local law

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“ship money”

people on coast were to pay ship tax > but really made everyone pay this tax

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English Civil War

(1642-1648) Parliament vs King. Parliament wins and Charles I executed

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Oliver Cromwell

Leader of Parliamentary forces and the new model army

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New Model Army

Composed of extreme puritans who believed they were doing battle for God > didn’t curse or drink

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The Commonwealth

(1649-1658) Parliament abolished the monarchy and and proclaimed England as a commonwealth (republic). But Cromwell was unable to work effectively with parliament so he dispersed it with force and established a military dictatorship.

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The restoration

After Cromwell's death, the army decided that military rule was no longer feasible and restored the monarchy, appointing Charles II king

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Charles II

(1660-1685) son of Charles I. Established the secret Treaty of Dover, where he would convert England to Catholicism for money

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James II

(1685-1688) Succeeds Charles II. Is a devout catholic which became a major source of conflict b/w him and parliament. Although he already had 2 daughters (Mary and Anne were protestants), the birth of his son created fear that a catholic hereditary monarchy was to come, inciting the Glorious Revolution

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The “glorious revolution”

1688 – English noblemen invited William of Orange (husband of James' daughter Mary) to invade England Little bloodshed

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William and Mary

(1688-1702) Parliament offered the throne to them along with the provisions of a bill of rights which gave the parliament the right to make laws and levy taxes.

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Bill of rights

passed by parliament in 1689 > king and queen are chosen officials and not absolute > establishment of limited (constitutional) monarchy)

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Constitutionalism defended by who?

John Locke who said that in state of nature, everyone has natural rights given by God > life, liberty and property