Flashcards in Notes 7 - The west on the eve of a new world order Deck (94):
The Scientific Revolution
a new way of viewing the universe and the place of Europeans in it
the world view of the Universe
Ptolemaic view/Ptolemy (2nd Century C.E. Astronomer)
supported the geocentric theory - the earth was at the center of the universe.
the geocentric theory
the earth was at the center of the universe.
(1473-1543) believed in the Heliocentric theory, which advocated that the sun was the center of the Universe. He got this idea from Aristarchus of Samos, an Ancient Greek philosopher.
he contradicted Copernicus by showing that the orbits of the planets around the sun were not circular but elliptical, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center
(1564-1642) used the telescope to destroy the geocentric theory. Saw that the surface of the moon was rough, not a crystal. Saw that there were four moons revolving around Jupiter. Revealed that not all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth. Arrested by the Inquisition, threatened with torture, and forced to recant (he undermined Ptolemaic theory). Disturbed "established authority" - the Church thought his view contradicted the Bible
(English) He advocated inductive reasoning that is you start from direct observations, and then go on to develop general principles to explain those observations. Bacon also emphasized the importance of empirical research. (empirical-direct observation or experience.)
He was a skeptic "I think, therefore I am" existence is reasonable. Believed reason was the key, it could explain the way the universe works 'the beginning of rationalism' Advocated using mathematics to prove scientific facts
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) Discovered the law of gravity and believed in the "world machine"
The Newtonian synthesis
(combined Bacon and Descartes ideas) Newton integrated the methodologies > observation, mathematics, experimentation.
The Scientific Method
process based on careful observation, controlled experimentation, and the use of mathematics to interpret the results.
Newton's World Machine
Newton believed the world worked like a huge regulated machine, governed by natural laws, which can be discovered
When and where the enlightenment start
1750's in France
The enlightenment brought discovery of what?
Natural law, rationalism and progress
believed god was creator of universe which operates according to natural laws, but uninvolved with people
1694-1778 - free thinker, believed in individual freedom and deism
1689-1755 - wrote "The spirit of the laws" which applied the scientific method to the social and political arena --> importance of separation of power
the "thinkers" and philosophers, mostly the French
1713-1784 - put the writing of the enlightened in the encyclopedia "to change the general view of thinking"
1723-1790 - "Wealth of Nations", invisible hand
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778 - anti-enlightenment, 1st socialist > get rid of private property and self interest, and wants govt interference in economy
the "general will"
public interest, represented what the entire community ought to do
1759-1797 - Founder of modern European feminism > advocated for same rights in education, politics and economy "A vindication of the Rights of Women"
Europeans that come over from Iberian Peninsula
the children of white parents that are born in the new world
white and native American
white and African
economics of Latin America
largely agricultural > produce crops for Europe
people working on plantations > native peasants permanently dependent on landowners
the State in Latin America
the govt in Europe (Spain and Portugal) is directly controlling things in the new world
the governor-general >the Portuguese monarchy began to assert its control over Brazil by establishing this position, but only had loose control. Spain followed suit
panel of judges governing the viceroys
The roman catholic church in LA
interested in converting the people of the new world to Christianity and taught them trades
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
1651-1695 - educated nun > best known literary figure
acquisition of colonies
modern day Canada
Named after King Louis 14th
monarchs that supposedly followed the advice of philosophes and rules by enlightened principles
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796, Russia) was really an absolutist. Marries Peter III, future czar then participated in killing him b/c she wanted power. Conquered Crimea. Serfs rebel, but she calls army to stop them
Frederick II the Great
(1740-1786 Prussia) most cultured monarch, but still an absolutist - well versed in enlightenment. Expanded army and granted freedom of speech and religion, but kept rigid social structure.
(1780-1790, Austria) abolished serfdom and the death penalty. Established equality for all and complete religious toleration(emancipation of the Jews). In doing so, he alienated the nobility and the church. His successors undid many of his reforms
Jews from Poland and Lithuania
Jews of German - Poland dialect
Jews who are the descendants of those expelled from Spain
Catholics cant change interest on loans, but Jews could. Believed Jews caused the bubonic plague
organized riots attacking Jews and synagogues > supported by govt
years where there are no wars
1715 - 1740 > France was the power
year - beginning of the new world
War > Prussia vs. Austria
1740 - new king of Prussia starts the fighting > Frederick II wants Silesia and wins it > alliances (Britain and Austria) vs. (Prussia and France)
the seven years war
ended in stalemate (1756-1763) Austria attacks Prussia, then Britain and France switch sides. Now (Britain and Prussia) vs. (France, Austria and Russia)
Prime minister of Britain. Says key to winning is to put army in N. America and let Frederick of Prussia conquer Europe
battle of Quebec
1759 - British goal is to conquer Quebec, but is already occupied by French. British win
treaty of Paris
1763 - Britain acquires Canada and becomes the power and France is ejected from N. America.
the American revolution
(1775-1781) 13 colonies didn’t want to pay taxes to Britain, France stepped in to help the colonies > France American alliance
declaration of independence
1776 -primary author is Thomas Jefferson who is inspired by teachings of john Locke
US bill of rights
the French revolution
1789- had its origins in political grievances
the old regime
1789 - the political and social system in France in the 1700's before the revolution
the 3 estates
(1) catholic clergy (2)nobles (3) everybody else
helped start the French revolution
1774-1792 - dies in revolution
Louis XVI wife, Austrian and like to spend money "lady deficit"
1787 - 1789 - financial crisis/ debt due to costly wars, royal extravagance, bad harvest, food shortages, unemployment and manufacturing depression > Louis was forced to call a meeting of the estates general
French parliamentary body that consisted of representatives of the 3 estates
the third estate during the crisis
although outnumbered the other estates, only had 1 vote. 'responded by declaring itself the "national assembly". The king intended to retaliate, but the common people revolted
1789 > the storming of the bastille
the great fear
rumor that the nobles are going to kill the peasants, so the peasants attack nobles 1st
after revolution the new govt is...
constitutional monarchy. Louis isn't happy b/c his powers are limited due to the "declaration of the rights of man and the citizen"
declaration of the rights of man and the citizen"
idea of getting rid of social classes
the assembly seating
monarchists (right) > republic/radicals (left) > moderates (center)
Louis charged with treason, then...
1/21/1793 he's executed. Then France declares war on Austria, then Austria, Prussia and Britain invade France
leader of the Jacobins > previously against death penalty, but wants to execute the king and anyone against the movement
committee of public safety
set up by Max. 12 people, take over govt, suspend constitution and bill of rights. Mandates everyone has to serve in army
nation of arms
French army was the creation of a "people's" govt, and it's wars were now "people's" wars. Entire nation was to become involved
the reign of terror
launched by the national convention and committee of public safety > purpose was to scare people who believed in the monarch into supporting the revolution. Those who didn’t support were executed by the guillotine. The terror is over when Max is executed
the Haitian revolution
1804 > becomes new independent country
(1746-1803) leader of the Haitian revolution
Succeeded Max > commander of French against Austria and Prussia, regarded as "conquering hero" > Not king, instead 1st consul, then consul for life, then crowned himself emperor in 1804
military takeover of a govt
the civil code
single code of laws for the entire nation. Preserved most revolutionary gains, except for women
the grand empire
begins attacking neighboring states > composed of dependent states and allied states
battle of Trafalgar
1805 - French defeated by British navy.
admiral horation nelson
commander of British navy
the continental system
attempted to prevent British goods from reaching European continent and forbade countries that he had defeated from trading with the British, to weaken Britain economically and their ability to wage war, but failed
1st resistance to France
Spain, up rose against France with the aide of the British
citizens of Spain attacking French soldiers to push them out
the invasion of Russia
(1812) France invaded them because they were secretly trading with British. Russia defeated France by torching their villages so the French couldn’t find food, in combo with the harsh winters. Napoleon then exiled to Elba
the battle of waterloo
(1815)Napoleon returned from Elba and led French army against British and Prussian army, and suffered a bloody defeat. Then Exiled permanently to S. America.
Belief that human reason and experience are the chief sources of knowledge
intellectual movement that sought to apply reason to the human condition