Notes 7 - The west on the eve of a new world order Flashcards Preview

History > Notes 7 - The west on the eve of a new world order > Flashcards

Flashcards in Notes 7 - The west on the eve of a new world order Deck (94):
1

The Scientific Revolution

a new way of viewing the universe and the place of Europeans in it

2

Cosmology

the world view of the Universe

3

Ptolemaic view/Ptolemy (2nd Century C.E. Astronomer)

supported the geocentric theory - the earth was at the center of the universe.

4

the geocentric theory

the earth was at the center of the universe.

5

Nicholas Copernicus

(1473-1543) believed in the Heliocentric theory, which advocated that the sun was the center of the Universe. He got this idea from Aristarchus of Samos, an Ancient Greek philosopher.

6

Johannes Kepler

he contradicted Copernicus by showing that the orbits of the planets around the sun were not circular but elliptical, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center

7

Galileo

(1564-1642) used the telescope to destroy the geocentric theory. Saw that the surface of the moon was rough, not a crystal. Saw that there were four moons revolving around Jupiter. Revealed that not all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth. Arrested by the Inquisition, threatened with torture, and forced to recant (he undermined Ptolemaic theory). Disturbed "established authority" - the Church thought his view contradicted the Bible

8

Francis Bacon

(English) He advocated inductive reasoning that is you start from direct observations, and then go on to develop general principles to explain those observations. Bacon also emphasized the importance of empirical research. (empirical-direct observation or experience.)

9

Rene Descartes

He was a skeptic "I think, therefore I am" existence is reasonable. Believed reason was the key, it could explain the way the universe works 'the beginning of rationalism' Advocated using mathematics to prove scientific facts

10

Sir Isaac Newton

(1642-1727) Discovered the law of gravity and believed in the "world machine"

11

The Newtonian synthesis

(combined Bacon and Descartes ideas) Newton integrated the methodologies > observation, mathematics, experimentation.

12

The Scientific Method

process based on careful observation, controlled experimentation, and the use of mathematics to interpret the results.

13

Newton's World Machine

Newton believed the world worked like a huge regulated machine, governed by natural laws, which can be discovered

14

When and where the enlightenment start

1750's in France

15

The enlightenment brought discovery of what?

Natural law, rationalism and progress

16

Deism

believed god was creator of universe which operates according to natural laws, but uninvolved with people

17

Voltaire

1694-1778 - free thinker, believed in individual freedom and deism

18

Montesquieu

1689-1755 - wrote "The spirit of the laws" which applied the scientific method to the social and political arena --> importance of separation of power

19

the philosophes

the "thinkers" and philosophers, mostly the French

20

Diderot

1713-1784 - put the writing of the enlightened in the encyclopedia "to change the general view of thinking"

21

Adam Smith

1723-1790 - "Wealth of Nations", invisible hand

22

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712-1778 - anti-enlightenment, 1st socialist > get rid of private property and self interest, and wants govt interference in economy

23

the "general will"

public interest, represented what the entire community ought to do

24

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759-1797 - Founder of modern European feminism > advocated for same rights in education, politics and economy "A vindication of the Rights of Women"

25

peninsulares

Europeans that come over from Iberian Peninsula

26

creoles

the children of white parents that are born in the new world

27

mestizos

white and native American

28

mulattoes

white and African

29

economics of Latin America

largely agricultural > produce crops for Europe

30

haciendas

large plantations

31

peons

people working on plantations > native peasants permanently dependent on landowners

32

the State in Latin America

the govt in Europe (Spain and Portugal) is directly controlling things in the new world

33

Viceroys

the governor-general >the Portuguese monarchy began to assert its control over Brazil by establishing this position, but only had loose control. Spain followed suit

34

Audiencias

panel of judges governing the viceroys

35

The roman catholic church in LA

interested in converting the people of the new world to Christianity and taught them trades

36

Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

1651-1695 - educated nun > best known literary figure

37

mercantilism

acquisition of colonies

38

new France

modern day Canada

39

Louisiana

Named after King Louis 14th

40

enlightened absolutism

monarchs that supposedly followed the advice of philosophes and rules by enlightened principles

41

Catherine the Great

(1762-1796, Russia) was really an absolutist. Marries Peter III, future czar then participated in killing him b/c she wanted power. Conquered Crimea. Serfs rebel, but she calls army to stop them

42

Frederick II the Great

(1740-1786 Prussia) most cultured monarch, but still an absolutist - well versed in enlightenment. Expanded army and granted freedom of speech and religion, but kept rigid social structure.

43

Joseph II

(1780-1790, Austria) abolished serfdom and the death penalty. Established equality for all and complete religious toleration(emancipation of the Jews). In doing so, he alienated the nobility and the church. His successors undid many of his reforms

44

ashkenazim

Jews from Poland and Lithuania

45

Yiddish

Jews of German - Poland dialect

46

Sephardim

Jews who are the descendants of those expelled from Spain

47

usury

Catholics cant change interest on loans, but Jews could. Believed Jews caused the bubonic plague

48

pogram

organized riots attacking Jews and synagogues > supported by govt

49

years where there are no wars

1715 - 1740 > France was the power

50

year - beginning of the new world

1750

51

War > Prussia vs. Austria

1740 - new king of Prussia starts the fighting > Frederick II wants Silesia and wins it > alliances (Britain and Austria) vs. (Prussia and France)

52

the seven years war

ended in stalemate (1756-1763) Austria attacks Prussia, then Britain and France switch sides. Now (Britain and Prussia) vs. (France, Austria and Russia)

53

William pitt

Prime minister of Britain. Says key to winning is to put army in N. America and let Frederick of Prussia conquer Europe

54

battle of Quebec

1759 - British goal is to conquer Quebec, but is already occupied by French. British win

55

treaty of Paris

1763 - Britain acquires Canada and becomes the power and France is ejected from N. America.

56

the American revolution

(1775-1781) 13 colonies didn’t want to pay taxes to Britain, France stepped in to help the colonies > France American alliance

57

declaration of independence

1776 -primary author is Thomas Jefferson who is inspired by teachings of john Locke

58

the constitution

1787

59

US bill of rights

1789

60

the French revolution

1789- had its origins in political grievances

61

the old regime

1789 - the political and social system in France in the 1700's before the revolution

62

the 3 estates

(1) catholic clergy (2)nobles (3) everybody else

63

Lafayette

helped start the French revolution

64

Louis XVI

1774-1792 - dies in revolution

65

Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI wife, Austrian and like to spend money "lady deficit"

66

the crisis

1787 - 1789 - financial crisis/ debt due to costly wars, royal extravagance, bad harvest, food shortages, unemployment and manufacturing depression > Louis was forced to call a meeting of the estates general

67

estates general

French parliamentary body that consisted of representatives of the 3 estates

68

the third estate during the crisis

although outnumbered the other estates, only had 1 vote. 'responded by declaring itself the "national assembly". The king intended to retaliate, but the common people revolted

69

the revolution

1789 > the storming of the bastille

70

the great fear

rumor that the nobles are going to kill the peasants, so the peasants attack nobles 1st

71

after revolution the new govt is...

constitutional monarchy. Louis isn't happy b/c his powers are limited due to the "declaration of the rights of man and the citizen"

72

declaration of the rights of man and the citizen"

idea of getting rid of social classes

73

the assembly seating

monarchists (right) > republic/radicals (left) > moderates (center)

74

Louis charged with treason, then...

1/21/1793 he's executed. Then France declares war on Austria, then Austria, Prussia and Britain invade France

75

Maximilian Robespierre

leader of the Jacobins > previously against death penalty, but wants to execute the king and anyone against the movement

76

committee of public safety

set up by Max. 12 people, take over govt, suspend constitution and bill of rights. Mandates everyone has to serve in army

77

nation of arms

French army was the creation of a "people's" govt, and it's wars were now "people's" wars. Entire nation was to become involved

78

the reign of terror

launched by the national convention and committee of public safety > purpose was to scare people who believed in the monarch into supporting the revolution. Those who didn’t support were executed by the guillotine. The terror is over when Max is executed

79

the Haitian revolution

1804 > becomes new independent country

80

Toussaint L'Ouverture

(1746-1803) leader of the Haitian revolution

81

Napoleon Bonaoarte

Succeeded Max > commander of French against Austria and Prussia, regarded as "conquering hero" > Not king, instead 1st consul, then consul for life, then crowned himself emperor in 1804

82

coup d'etat

military takeover of a govt

83

the civil code

single code of laws for the entire nation. Preserved most revolutionary gains, except for women

84

the grand empire

begins attacking neighboring states > composed of dependent states and allied states

85

battle of Trafalgar

1805 - French defeated by British navy.

86

admiral horation nelson

commander of British navy

87

the continental system

attempted to prevent British goods from reaching European continent and forbade countries that he had defeated from trading with the British, to weaken Britain economically and their ability to wage war, but failed

88

1st resistance to France

Spain, up rose against France with the aide of the British

89

guerilla war

citizens of Spain attacking French soldiers to push them out

90

the invasion of Russia

(1812) France invaded them because they were secretly trading with British. Russia defeated France by torching their villages so the French couldn’t find food, in combo with the harsh winters. Napoleon then exiled to Elba

91

the battle of waterloo

(1815)Napoleon returned from Elba and led French army against British and Prussian army, and suffered a bloody defeat. Then Exiled permanently to S. America.

92

Rationalism

Belief that human reason and experience are the chief sources of knowledge

93

enlightenment

intellectual movement that sought to apply reason to the human condition

94

John Locke

Believed that government's purpose was to protect natural rights