Notes 8 - The origins of modernization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Notes 8 - The origins of modernization Deck (54):
1

free enterprise system

capitalism

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where is the most capitalism?

England

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cottage industries

people working from their homes > textiles industry

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causes of the industrial revolution

means of production > land (natural resources), labor, capital,entrepreneurship

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significance of railroads

lowered costs

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James Watt

1736-1819 > invented the steam engine – power to run machines

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consequences of the industrial revolution

factory system, urbanization, rise of the bourgeoisie (middle class), rise of trade unions, the proletariat (workers), pollution, urban slums, child labor, sexual exploitation

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humanitarians

those who cared about the welfare of the people

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Charles dickens

Author > humanitarian

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factory legislation

regulations of children and women working > 10 hour workday

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marxism

the attack of capitalism “enemy of working man is the boss”

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karl marx

1818-1883 > 1st philosopher/economist to criticize Adam Smith, influenced by rousseau

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“The class struggle”

a process > struggle between owners and working people

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“Dictator of the proletariat”

workers take over the factory and govt – teaching to share and get along. Thought there would be a revolution, but there wasn’t

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“Pure communism”

classless society > final stage of society after state has dissolved

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socialism

transition state between capitalism and communism

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Edward Bernstein

the father of revisionism

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revisionism

a policy of revision or modification, esp. of Marxism on evolutionary socialist > the way for socialism to catch on is to get into politics

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Social democratic party

SPD > socialist party of Germany

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Fabianism

labor party of Great Britain set up socialism in a peaceful subtle way

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the congress of vienna

1815 -a conference of ambassadors of European states. The objective was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the wars, to restore old boundaries,and resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.

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Klemons von Metternich

1773-1859 – prime minister of Austria who sets up the Concert of Europe. Reactionary

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Concert of Europe

was the balance of power that existed in Europe > european countries coming together to stop revolutions.

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conservative

believes in SLOW changes, old values and traditional liberties

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reactionary

someone who believes in NO changes > absolutism

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Edmond Burke

(1729-1797) founded conservatism > believes in the american revolution but not the french

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liberalism

like Thomas Jefferson > against the monarchy, separation of church and state , free market and civil liberties

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nationalism

patriotism, love of country > more powerful than any other '-ism'

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“the sick man of Europe”

the ottoman empire > used to be great but declining because never went through modernization and the sultans are corrupt

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the Crimean war

(1853-1856) Russia invade Turkish territory because they weren’t given he rights to protect christian shrines in palestine, so Turks declare war on Russia. Fearful that Russia would gain at the expense of the failing O-empire, Britain and France also declare war on Russia. Austria and Russia become enemies because of Austria's unwillingness to support Russia > First was covered by the media

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Florence Nightengale

nurse who organized field hospital system to take care of soldiers

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Significance of the crimean war

Austria stayed neutral, so then they had no powerful allies > opened the door for italian unification of Italy and Germany

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Risorgimento (Resurgence)

the movement that aimed to unite the separate duchies of Italy into a single nation-state.

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Count Camillo di Cavour

(1810-1861)-Italian statesman, becomes prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia (1852), leading figure in Italian unification

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Cavour does what?

Cavour decides to go to war with Austria to gain control of Lombardy. To ensure that Napoleon III of France remains neutral, Cavor gives Nice and Savoy to Napoleon III.

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When? Piedmont seizes Lombardy from Austria

1859

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Nationalists in the the Four Italian duchies of Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna do what?

overthrow their governments and join the country of Piedmont (1859).

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Giuseppe Garibaldi

1807-1882)-leader of the “Red Shirts” invades Sicily in 1860, crosses over to the Italian mainland and marches up “the Italian boot,” defeats the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and then meets Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel (of Piedmont-Sardinia) at Naples. Garibaldi gives the territory he has conquered to Piedmont-Sardinia.

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When? The Kingdom of Italy is established?

1861

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When? Venetia seized from Austria

1866

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Rome is added to the Kingdom of Italy

1870 – Italian unification is completed.

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Germany unification complete

1871

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Otto Von Bismark

1815 – 1898 >Prime minister of Prussia, key person in German unification > says the way is through war

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realpolitik

the “politics of reality

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3 key wars to german unification

the danish war, seven weeks war, Franco-prussian war

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the danish war

1864 – Prussia defeats Denmark

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seven weeks war

1866 – Prussia defeats Austria

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north german confederation

1867 - alliance of 22 German states north of the Main river

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EMS dispatch

1870 - routine diplomatic cable, but Bismark (of Prussia) rewrites it to insult the leader of France, so France declares war on Prussia.

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Alsace and Lorraine

“sacred” land in France that was lost

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Austro-Hungarian Empire

after defeat, Austrians had to deal with fierce nationalistic hungarians (and threat of revolt), so they compromised and set up a dual monarchy

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The Austrian dual monarchy

1867 – merge 2 countries > each part of empire had own capital, legislature and governmental bureaucracy, but had common monarch (Francis Joseph), army, foreign policy and system of finances

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Alexander II

(1855-1881) Russian Czar, Nationalist

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Emancipation of the serfs

1861 – Alex says Russia got beat in the Crimean war because they were antiquated and didn’t have the help of the serfs, therefore he emancipated the serfs who became peasants because the nobles conspired against them and they couldn’t get work