Flashcards in Notes 8 - The origins of modernization Deck (54):
free enterprise system
where is the most capitalism?
people working from their homes > textiles industry
causes of the industrial revolution
means of production > land (natural resources), labor, capital,entrepreneurship
significance of railroads
1736-1819 > invented the steam engine – power to run machines
consequences of the industrial revolution
factory system, urbanization, rise of the bourgeoisie (middle class), rise of trade unions, the proletariat (workers), pollution, urban slums, child labor, sexual exploitation
those who cared about the welfare of the people
Author > humanitarian
regulations of children and women working > 10 hour workday
the attack of capitalism “enemy of working man is the boss”
1818-1883 > 1st philosopher/economist to criticize Adam Smith, influenced by rousseau
“The class struggle”
a process > struggle between owners and working people
“Dictator of the proletariat”
workers take over the factory and govt – teaching to share and get along. Thought there would be a revolution, but there wasn’t
classless society > final stage of society after state has dissolved
transition state between capitalism and communism
the father of revisionism
a policy of revision or modification, esp. of Marxism on evolutionary socialist > the way for socialism to catch on is to get into politics
Social democratic party
SPD > socialist party of Germany
labor party of Great Britain set up socialism in a peaceful subtle way
the congress of vienna
1815 -a conference of ambassadors of European states. The objective was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the wars, to restore old boundaries,and resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace.
Klemons von Metternich
1773-1859 – prime minister of Austria who sets up the Concert of Europe. Reactionary
Concert of Europe
was the balance of power that existed in Europe > european countries coming together to stop revolutions.
believes in SLOW changes, old values and traditional liberties
someone who believes in NO changes > absolutism
(1729-1797) founded conservatism > believes in the american revolution but not the french
like Thomas Jefferson > against the monarchy, separation of church and state , free market and civil liberties
patriotism, love of country > more powerful than any other '-ism'
“the sick man of Europe”
the ottoman empire > used to be great but declining because never went through modernization and the sultans are corrupt
the Crimean war
(1853-1856) Russia invade Turkish territory because they weren’t given he rights to protect christian shrines in palestine, so Turks declare war on Russia. Fearful that Russia would gain at the expense of the failing O-empire, Britain and France also declare war on Russia. Austria and Russia become enemies because of Austria's unwillingness to support Russia > First was covered by the media
nurse who organized field hospital system to take care of soldiers
Significance of the crimean war
Austria stayed neutral, so then they had no powerful allies > opened the door for italian unification of Italy and Germany
the movement that aimed to unite the separate duchies of Italy into a single nation-state.
Count Camillo di Cavour
(1810-1861)-Italian statesman, becomes prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia (1852), leading figure in Italian unification
Cavour does what?
Cavour decides to go to war with Austria to gain control of Lombardy. To ensure that Napoleon III of France remains neutral, Cavor gives Nice and Savoy to Napoleon III.
When? Piedmont seizes Lombardy from Austria
Nationalists in the the Four Italian duchies of Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna do what?
overthrow their governments and join the country of Piedmont (1859).
1807-1882)-leader of the “Red Shirts” invades Sicily in 1860, crosses over to the Italian mainland and marches up “the Italian boot,” defeats the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and then meets Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel (of Piedmont-Sardinia) at Naples. Garibaldi gives the territory he has conquered to Piedmont-Sardinia.
When? The Kingdom of Italy is established?
When? Venetia seized from Austria
Rome is added to the Kingdom of Italy
1870 – Italian unification is completed.
Germany unification complete
Otto Von Bismark
1815 – 1898 >Prime minister of Prussia, key person in German unification > says the way is through war
the “politics of reality
3 key wars to german unification
the danish war, seven weeks war, Franco-prussian war
the danish war
1864 – Prussia defeats Denmark
seven weeks war
1866 – Prussia defeats Austria
north german confederation
1867 - alliance of 22 German states north of the Main river
1870 - routine diplomatic cable, but Bismark (of Prussia) rewrites it to insult the leader of France, so France declares war on Prussia.
Alsace and Lorraine
“sacred” land in France that was lost
after defeat, Austrians had to deal with fierce nationalistic hungarians (and threat of revolt), so they compromised and set up a dual monarchy
The Austrian dual monarchy
1867 – merge 2 countries > each part of empire had own capital, legislature and governmental bureaucracy, but had common monarch (Francis Joseph), army, foreign policy and system of finances
(1855-1881) Russian Czar, Nationalist