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imperialism

“colonialism” idea that superior power attacks another to take over

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causes of imperialism

(1) industrial revolution – need natural resources to sustain factories (2) national rivalries -Britain vs France & Russia vs Austria (3) Social Darwinism (4) moral purpose – to bring medicine, education, literacy

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Herbert Spencer

Took theories of Darwin and applied it to society > races evolved to different levels, with anglo-saxons being superior

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Rudyard Kipling

Englishman living in India - author of “The white man's burden” which says its their responsibility to take care of the inferior

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David Livingstone

Christian physician and missionary who was concerned about the slave trade in EAST Africa.

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Zanzibar

Became major shipping port along east coast and largest slave market. Known for clove plantations and ivory

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Before 1800 in Africa

Europeans stayed on the coast in their factory forts

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End of slave trade

1807 in WEST Africa, enforced by the british navy, and 1873 in EAST Africa

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Liberia

Colony of former american slaves 1847

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Cape colony

1652 – Started by Dutch in the South.
1815 – Britain acquires from Dutch during the Napoleonic wars

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Boers

Descendents of whites living in Africa

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Africaans

Language of whites living in South Africa > a mix of dutch and native bantu language

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The Great Trek

1830's – The boers eastward migration provoked by the the abolishment of slavery and the British govt's sympathy towards the native africans.

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Zulu Nation

Became the most powerful army in southern Africa – Bantu people

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Shaka Zulu

(1816-1828) Talented leader of the Bantu people who engaged in a series of wars with the europeans. Shortened the spear for fighting in close range

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The scramble for Africa

Beginning 1880's – the idea that african territory has to be seized.

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King Leopold

of Belgium, claimed the Congo, and introduced the idea of “the magnificent cake”

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Indirect rule

British and French recruit a tribe of Africa > Educate them, then declare them leaders of the country in the name of the Europeans

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origins of anti-colonialism

(1) traditional resistance (2) religious resistance (3) national independence movements

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traditional resistance

concept of nationhood, aimed at protecting the homeland from invaders.

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Battle of Isandlwanda

1879 – the british are so overconfident (S.Africa) 1300 british against 20,000 zulu warriors. British lose

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Battle of Adowa

1896 – Ethiopia defeats Italy > France had been secretly giving weapons to Ethiopia b/c France and Italy are rivals

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Muhammad Ahmad

A muslim religious leader of Sudan aka “The Mahdi” or “the rightly guided one”

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Religious Resistance

Islam vs Christian “infidels”

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Jihad Movement

Muhammad declared a jihad (holy war) and led a successful war of liberation from the Ottoman-Egyptian military occupation. He also achieved a remarkable victory over the British, who were the de facto rulers of Egypt.

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Khartoum

(1885)Capital of Sudan > brilliant military victory over the Anglo-Egyptian forces led by Muhammad.

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National Independence movements

African leaders learn about the liberties because they have been given an education, sometimes is Europe

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Sepoys

native troops hired by the east India company to protect british interests in the region

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Sepoy rebellion

1857 – unrest had been created, in part, by the rapid imposition of direct British control over two-thirds of India, and intensified with the implementation of the paper cartridges which used fat from cow and pig.

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Indian national congress

Indian political party, founded in 1885. Its founding members proposed economic reforms and wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India – Gandhi

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Dai Viet

is the official name of vietnamese dynasties beginning with the rule of Le Thanh Tong

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Le Thanh Tong

(1442-1497) The important leader of north Vietnam – considered the great centralizer. Conquers Champa and suddenly Vietnam is united Interested in the teachings of Confucius and adopts the best practices of China.

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Vietnam Civil War

1770's – Trinh family (ruled north capital Hanoi) vs Nguyen family (ruled central Vietnam capital Hue) > Nguyen Wins

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Gia Long (Nguyen Anh)

By 1802 is the leader, defeats Trinh and brings reunification to the country. Really into Confucianism

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Dates of the Nguyen dynasty

(1802-1945)

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Missionaries to Vietnam

1850's – French send in missionaries to southeast Asia, where they are persecuted for being catholic. Prompts France to send in the army

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French army moves into Vietnam

1858 – says its to find their lost missionaries, but they really want rice and rubber

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French Indo-China

1893 – Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos > French treat natives terribly

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Indonesia

Dutch took control of Indonesia for the petroleum

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The Ch'ing (Qing) dynasty in decline

Due to corruption, rapid growth in population, and big guns of the western powers.

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Background to the Opium War

British were importing lots of tea from china, but China limited importing goods from Britain, creating a deficit for Britain.

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Commissioner Lin Ze-xu

Chinese official appealed to Queen Victoria of England on moral and practical grounds to stop the sale of opium, but commercial profits trumped moral principles, and the queen denied the request.

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Opium War

(1839-1842) After china blockaded the foreign factory area in canton, The british launched a naval expedition to force china to open for foreign trade. China finally agreed to open 5 ports to british trade.

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Hong Kong

China agreed to cede the island to Britain after the war, which they kept until 1997. Then they seized Canton and Shanghai

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“unequal” treaties

british force Chinese to sign treaties where everything is in favor of the british. Chinese leaders respond by “self strengthening”

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Self strengthening

where western technology would be adopted while Confucianism principles and institutions were maintained

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Was a reactionary > opposed westernization and the emperor's edicts for major political, educational and administrative reform.

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Sino-Japanese war

1894 – ultimate humiliation > conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea.

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spheres of influence

a territory over which an outside nation excessive political or economic influence > France, Germany, Britannia, japan, Russia, Italy all conquering parts of china and Africa

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Boxer rebellion

1900 – Boxers (rationalist martial artists)started group “fists of righteous harmony” and attacked foreign residents until european countries send in their armies which destroy temples and force the Chinese to pay.

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Sun Yat-sen

Prominent revolutionary and founder of the first Chinese republic and the nationalist party

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Revolution of 1911

Starts in the Wuhan Province, was more of a collapse of the old order rather than a revolution > marked the end of the dynasty and the beginning of the Republic.

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Matthew Perry

American naval commander arrives in Japan to convince them to trade, and Japan agreed, intimidated by their big ships and weapons.

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Shogun > Emperor

Rebellious samurai attacked the shogun's palace (in response to his unpopular decision to trade with westerners) and restored authority to the emperor

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Meiji Restoration

1868 – New emperor embarked on on policy of comprehensive reform and begins process of modernization and industrialization to catch up after being isolated for so long. Takes 40 years – 1 generation, super fast.

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Sino-Japanese war

1894 > Japan takes control of Korea until 1945 > Start of Japanese territorial expansion

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Russo-Japanese War

1904-1905 > Rivalry with Russia over Korea led to a surprise attack on the Russian naval base, and won. Russia agreed to abandon political and economic influence on Korea and manchuria.

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Korea annexed

became integral part of Japan 1908