Flashcards in Notes 9 - THe age of imperialiam Deck (58):
“colonialism” idea that superior power attacks another to take over
causes of imperialism
(1) industrial revolution – need natural resources to sustain factories (2) national rivalries -Britain vs France & Russia vs Austria (3) Social Darwinism (4) moral purpose – to bring medicine, education, literacy
Took theories of Darwin and applied it to society > races evolved to different levels, with anglo-saxons being superior
Englishman living in India - author of “The white man's burden” which says its their responsibility to take care of the inferior
Christian physician and missionary who was concerned about the slave trade in EAST Africa.
Became major shipping port along east coast and largest slave market. Known for clove plantations and ivory
Before 1800 in Africa
Europeans stayed on the coast in their factory forts
End of slave trade
1807 in WEST Africa, enforced by the british navy, and 1873 in EAST Africa
Colony of former american slaves 1847
1652 – Started by Dutch in the South.
1815 – Britain acquires from Dutch during the Napoleonic wars
Descendents of whites living in Africa
Language of whites living in South Africa > a mix of dutch and native bantu language
The Great Trek
1830's – The boers eastward migration provoked by the the abolishment of slavery and the British govt's sympathy towards the native africans.
Became the most powerful army in southern Africa – Bantu people
(1816-1828) Talented leader of the Bantu people who engaged in a series of wars with the europeans. Shortened the spear for fighting in close range
The scramble for Africa
Beginning 1880's – the idea that african territory has to be seized.
of Belgium, claimed the Congo, and introduced the idea of “the magnificent cake”
British and French recruit a tribe of Africa > Educate them, then declare them leaders of the country in the name of the Europeans
origins of anti-colonialism
(1) traditional resistance (2) religious resistance (3) national independence movements
concept of nationhood, aimed at protecting the homeland from invaders.
Battle of Isandlwanda
1879 – the british are so overconfident (S.Africa) 1300 british against 20,000 zulu warriors. British lose
Battle of Adowa
1896 – Ethiopia defeats Italy > France had been secretly giving weapons to Ethiopia b/c France and Italy are rivals
A muslim religious leader of Sudan aka “The Mahdi” or “the rightly guided one”
Islam vs Christian “infidels”
Muhammad declared a jihad (holy war) and led a successful war of liberation from the Ottoman-Egyptian military occupation. He also achieved a remarkable victory over the British, who were the de facto rulers of Egypt.
(1885)Capital of Sudan > brilliant military victory over the Anglo-Egyptian forces led by Muhammad.
National Independence movements
African leaders learn about the liberties because they have been given an education, sometimes is Europe
native troops hired by the east India company to protect british interests in the region
1857 – unrest had been created, in part, by the rapid imposition of direct British control over two-thirds of India, and intensified with the implementation of the paper cartridges which used fat from cow and pig.
Indian national congress
Indian political party, founded in 1885. Its founding members proposed economic reforms and wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India – Gandhi
is the official name of vietnamese dynasties beginning with the rule of Le Thanh Tong
Le Thanh Tong
(1442-1497) The important leader of north Vietnam – considered the great centralizer. Conquers Champa and suddenly Vietnam is united Interested in the teachings of Confucius and adopts the best practices of China.
Vietnam Civil War
1770's – Trinh family (ruled north capital Hanoi) vs Nguyen family (ruled central Vietnam capital Hue) > Nguyen Wins
Gia Long (Nguyen Anh)
By 1802 is the leader, defeats Trinh and brings reunification to the country. Really into Confucianism
Dates of the Nguyen dynasty
Missionaries to Vietnam
1850's – French send in missionaries to southeast Asia, where they are persecuted for being catholic. Prompts France to send in the army
French army moves into Vietnam
1858 – says its to find their lost missionaries, but they really want rice and rubber
1893 – Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos > French treat natives terribly
Dutch took control of Indonesia for the petroleum
The Ch'ing (Qing) dynasty in decline
Due to corruption, rapid growth in population, and big guns of the western powers.
Background to the Opium War
British were importing lots of tea from china, but China limited importing goods from Britain, creating a deficit for Britain.
Commissioner Lin Ze-xu
Chinese official appealed to Queen Victoria of England on moral and practical grounds to stop the sale of opium, but commercial profits trumped moral principles, and the queen denied the request.
(1839-1842) After china blockaded the foreign factory area in canton, The british launched a naval expedition to force china to open for foreign trade. China finally agreed to open 5 ports to british trade.
China agreed to cede the island to Britain after the war, which they kept until 1997. Then they seized Canton and Shanghai
british force Chinese to sign treaties where everything is in favor of the british. Chinese leaders respond by “self strengthening”
where western technology would be adopted while Confucianism principles and institutions were maintained
Empress Dowager Cixi
Was a reactionary > opposed westernization and the emperor's edicts for major political, educational and administrative reform.
1894 – ultimate humiliation > conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea.
spheres of influence
a territory over which an outside nation excessive political or economic influence > France, Germany, Britannia, japan, Russia, Italy all conquering parts of china and Africa
1900 – Boxers (rationalist martial artists)started group “fists of righteous harmony” and attacked foreign residents until european countries send in their armies which destroy temples and force the Chinese to pay.
Prominent revolutionary and founder of the first Chinese republic and the nationalist party
Revolution of 1911
Starts in the Wuhan Province, was more of a collapse of the old order rather than a revolution > marked the end of the dynasty and the beginning of the Republic.
American naval commander arrives in Japan to convince them to trade, and Japan agreed, intimidated by their big ships and weapons.
Shogun > Emperor
Rebellious samurai attacked the shogun's palace (in response to his unpopular decision to trade with westerners) and restored authority to the emperor
1868 – New emperor embarked on on policy of comprehensive reform and begins process of modernization and industrialization to catch up after being isolated for so long. Takes 40 years – 1 generation, super fast.
1894 > Japan takes control of Korea until 1945 > Start of Japanese territorial expansion
1904-1905 > Rivalry with Russia over Korea led to a surprise attack on the Russian naval base, and won. Russia agreed to abandon political and economic influence on Korea and manchuria.