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Flashcards in Nov 1 Deck (27):
1

TRUE/FALSE
Species involved in obligate mutualisms experience no reduced fitness when separated

FALSE

2

TRUE/FALSE
Strict maternal inheritance and host isolation increases the likelihood that endosymbionts will cospeciate with their hosts

TRUE

3

What is not a consequence of obligate
endosymbiosis of bacterial mutualists?
a) genome reduction
b) nonculturability
c) host fitness being independent of endosymbiont
d) cospeciation

c) host fitness being independent of endosymbiont

4

What is nonculturability?

bacteria that cannot grow on medium

5

What happens to the host genome when the host has an endosymbiont?

host-acquisition of bacterial genes

6

Why do host genomes eventually acquire endosymbiont genes?

1) host control of the bacterial symbionts
2) regulation of production bc many endosymbionts lose their ability to self-regulate

7

How do facultative and obligate endosymbionts compare in 1) the direction of gene transfer 2) distribution 3) genome reduction?

facultative
1) horizontal/vertical gene transfer
2) nonuniform distribution
3) genome reduction
obligate
1) vertical gene transfer
2) uniform distribution
3) highly reduced genome

8

Which relationship is older, facultative or obligate endosymbiosis?

obligate

9

What is a microbiome?

collective genomes of the microbiota

10

Where is the greatest diversity of microbiota found in the human body?

gut

11

Where is Bacteroides normally found on the body?

gut

12

Where is Staphylococcus normally found on the body?

skin

13

Fat mice have (greater/less) capacity to exploit high-fat diet

greater

14

People eating high-fiber diets have...

more plant-digesting microbes

15

Urban Europeans have a lot of...

fat-metabolizing bacteria

16

Germ-free (gf) mice can be...

less risk-averse and more active than normal

17

Fecal transplants from normal mice into gf mice resulted in...

normal behavior

18

What are germ-free mice?

Mice w/ no microorganisms growing in or on them

19

How do species trees and microbiota composition based trees for great apes compare?

congruent

20

TRUE/FALSE
Mutualisms can cause irreversible changes in collaborative partners

TRUE

21

Loss of Blattabacterium correlates with what?

reduction in gut microbial diversity

22

What is the criteria for symbiont replacement?

Functionally similar w/ upgrades

23

In what direction are microbiota acquired?

vertically/horizontally

24

Isolation of mutualistic partner(s) can result in...

speciation

25

What is neoteny?

retention, by adults in a species, of traits previously seen only in juveniles

26

What is trophallaxis?

Transfer of food via mouth-to-mouth

27

What are characteristics of termite evolution?

neoteny
thin exoskeleton for gas exchange
trophallaxis
enlarged hindgut
nitrogenase activity