Flashcards in Nov 18 Deck (38):
In which case would antipredator behaviors be most likely to be effective for prey escape or defense?
a) introduced predators
b) well-known predators
c) nonthreatening conspecifics
d) introduced prey
b) well-known predators
The Lystrosaurus provides some evidence of Pangea
Palladium was the extraterrestrial element found at K-T interface in the fossil record indicating that an asteroid may have contributed to the K-T extinction event
What is taphonomy?
study of fossils
In what form are the least altered but rare fossils?
amber and freezing
What happens in the process of permineralization and replacement?
dissolved external minerals replace native minerals
Petrified wood, dinosaur skulls are what type of fossils?
What are natural molds and casts?
molds- unfilled spaces
casts- filled spaces replacing dead material
What do trace fossils record?
behavior ie. footprints, feces, burrows, dens
What developed radiocarbon dating?
What element is used to date indigenous rock?
What is paleomagnetic dating?
alignment of metal particles in substrate (when the substrate was motile) in btw geomagnetic shifts
What type of rock is usually fossilized?
S. frey cretaceous amber fossils represent a transitional form btw what 2 species?
ants and wasps
What is the “Pull of the recent”?
Patterns are harder to detect clearly the farther in the past you go
The Ediacaran period shows what evidence?
first evidence for macroscopic life
What organisms were seen in the Ediacaran period?
few centimeter forms
What organisms were seen in the Cambrian period?
trilobites, jawless chordates
Diversity from what period is similar to that observed today?
Who posited that posited that elevated oxygen levels and a pre-Cambrian extinction facilitated the emergence of new forms during the Cambrian period?
Knoll and Carroll
Ancestral forms of extant arthropods, mollusks, verts and echidnoderms were present in what period?
40 to 50% of all species in many major taxa, over a broad geographic range disappear. This is...
What are the big 5 mass extinctions?
How many mass extinctions happened in the past 600 million yrs?
What happened during the Terminal-Ordovician extinction?
global cooling/planetary instability; loss of 1/3 of mainly aquatic living species
What happened during the Late Devonian extinction?
global cooling; loss of mainly aquatic life (70%) due to decreased atm. CO2
What happened during the Permian extinction?
volcanic eruptions and global warming; 83% of genera went extinct
What happened during the Triassic extinction?
planetary instability; 48% of genera went extinct
What happened during the K-T extinction?
50% of genera went extinct
What is the Lilliput effect?
reduction in body size of surviving taxa
Mass extinctions account for what percent of all extinctions?
What are 3 causes of extinction?
competition and predation
Who are credited with identifying the crater associated with the asteroid sparking K-T extinction?
Walter and Luis Alvarez
What ET element was found in the crater believed to have caused the K-T extinction?
What mass extinction led to the rise of mammals?
What extinction led to the loss of flowering plants, insects, modern fishes, diatoms, dinoflagellates and dinosaurs?
What extinction led to atmospheric ash (vulcanization) killed photosynthesis, O2 levels
decreased, acid rains and ocean acidification (loss of reefs)?