Nov 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nov 18 Deck (38):
1

In which case would antipredator behaviors be most likely to be effective for prey escape or defense?
a) introduced predators
b) well-known predators
c) nonthreatening conspecifics
d) introduced prey

b) well-known predators

2

TRUE/FALSE
The Lystrosaurus provides some evidence of Pangea

TRUE

3

TRUE/FALSE
Palladium was the extraterrestrial element found at K-T interface in the fossil record indicating that an asteroid may have contributed to the K-T extinction event

FALSE

4

What is taphonomy?

study of fossils

5

In what form are the least altered but rare fossils?

amber and freezing

6

What happens in the process of permineralization and replacement?

dissolved external minerals replace native minerals

7

Petrified wood, dinosaur skulls are what type of fossils?

perimineralized

8

What are natural molds and casts?

molds- unfilled spaces
casts- filled spaces replacing dead material

9

What do trace fossils record?

behavior ie. footprints, feces, burrows, dens

10

What developed radiocarbon dating?

Willard Libby

11

What element is used to date indigenous rock?

potassium-->argon

12

What is paleomagnetic dating?

alignment of metal particles in substrate (when the substrate was motile) in btw geomagnetic shifts

13

What type of rock is usually fossilized?

sedimentary

14

S. frey cretaceous amber fossils represent a transitional form btw what 2 species?

ants and wasps

15

What is the “Pull of the recent”?

Patterns are harder to detect clearly the farther in the past you go

16

The Ediacaran period shows what evidence?

first evidence for macroscopic life

17

What organisms were seen in the Ediacaran period?

few centimeter forms
mollusks
marine

18

What organisms were seen in the Cambrian period?

soft-bodied
segmentation
exoskeletons
hunting
trilobites, jawless chordates

19

Diversity from what period is similar to that observed today?

Cambrian

20

Who posited that posited that elevated oxygen levels and a pre-Cambrian extinction facilitated the emergence of new forms during the Cambrian period?

Knoll and Carroll

21

Ancestral forms of extant arthropods, mollusks, verts and echidnoderms were present in what period?

Cambrian

22

40 to 50% of all species in many major taxa, over a broad geographic range disappear. This is...

mass extinction

23

What are the big 5 mass extinctions?

Ordovician
Devonian
Permian
Triassic
Cretaceous (K-T)

24

How many mass extinctions happened in the past 600 million yrs?

5-8

25

What happened during the Terminal-Ordovician extinction?

global cooling/planetary instability; loss of 1/3 of mainly aquatic living species

26

What happened during the Late Devonian extinction?

global cooling; loss of mainly aquatic life (70%) due to decreased atm. CO2

27

What happened during the Permian extinction?

volcanic eruptions and global warming; 83% of genera went extinct

28

What happened during the Triassic extinction?

planetary instability; 48% of genera went extinct

29

What happened during the K-T extinction?

50% of genera went extinct

30

What is the Lilliput effect?

reduction in body size of surviving taxa

31

Mass extinctions account for what percent of all extinctions?

4%

32

What are 3 causes of extinction?

competition and predation
disease
climate change

33

Who are credited with identifying the crater associated with the asteroid sparking K-T extinction?

Walter and Luis Alvarez

34

What ET element was found in the crater believed to have caused the K-T extinction?

iridium

35

What mass extinction led to the rise of mammals?

K-T

36

What extinction led to the loss of flowering plants, insects, modern fishes, diatoms, dinoflagellates and dinosaurs?

K-T

37

What extinction led to atmospheric ash (vulcanization) killed photosynthesis, O2 levels
decreased, acid rains and ocean acidification (loss of reefs)?

Permian-Triassic

38

What extinction led to a massive loss of biodiversity (primary producers, ancestral verts
and arthropods, amphibians, echidnoderms, land plants)?

Permian-Triassic