Nov 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nov 20 Deck (20):
1

Which species are best equipped to survive extinction?
a) broadly geographically distributed
b) narrow geographic range
c) tightly coevolved species

a) broadly geographically distributed

2

What are 4 factors that favor species extinction?

1. small geographic range
2. higher trophic positions ie. top of the food chain
3. low genetic diversity
4. small population size

3

What is Cope’s rule?

mammals get larger the longer they exist

4

What is the passive trend of directional change over time?

constraint on size beyond which evolution cannot take subsequent lineages

5

What is the active trend of directional change over time?

selection for size so that each generation tends to increase in body size

6

What are 2 paths that active trends may take?

parallel change- each subclade may undergo parallel evolutionary change toward larger body size
species selection- subclades w/ smaller body size go extinct and those w/ larger body size speciate

7

How does active trend look over time?

directional shift

8

What is phyletic gradualism?

New species arise through gradual transformation of ancestral species

9

Darwin accepted ___ as the primary means for species diversification

gradualism

10

Who proposed punctuated equilibria?

Eldredge and Gould

11

What mechanism posits prolonged stasis of well-adapted ‘forms’ (not to exclusion of less well adapted ‘forms’) interrupted by rapid shifts from one state to another?

Punctuated Equilibria

12

What is punctuated anagenesis?

loss of ancestral state; no split in lineage

13

TRUE/FALSE
Phyletic gradualism and allopatric speciation entail extinction of parent species

TRUE

14

Lineages undergoing LOTS of speciation may have temporarily (high/low) extinction rates

high

15

TRUE/FALSE
Tiktaalik provided evidence for a linkage between lungfishes and tetrapods because it had forelimb features similar to those in tetrapods

TRUE

16

What are tetrapods?

four-feet

17

Lobe-finned fishes are found in what period?

Devonian

18

What special features did Tiktaalik have?

elbow and wrist-like features

19

What is the link btw carnivorous dinosaurs and birds?

Archaeopteryx

20

What were the physical characteristics of Archaeopteryx?

hollow bones
feathers