Nov 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nov 8 Deck (33):
1

Mutations that result in a non-synonymous substitution occurs most frequently in which codon
position?
a) 1st
b) 2nd
c) 3rd
d) 4th

a) 1st

2

TRUE/FALSE
Highly expressed genes are typically encoded on the leading strand in bacterial and eukaryotic genomes

TRUE

3

What is evolutionary developmental biology?

seeks to understand how organisms transition from immature to mature towards using those processes to infer ancestral relationships and how they have emerged

4

Who posited that embryos reflect the embryos of ancestral organisms?

Meckel-Serres

5

What is the scala naturae?

life moves from simple to complex

6

What is a limitation of scala naturae?

Gross anatomy of adult forms are no more ‘complex’ than the tightly-regulated molecular orchestration of cellular differentiation

7

What is von Baer’s law?

related species have very similar early forms and distinguish themselves during development

8

The similarity of stage 1 embryos suggests that...

early traits are resistant to change
novelty emerges later in development

9

What is the biogenetic law (Haeckel)

developmental progress reflects the evolutionary history of the organisms; evolution produces new species by appending variations on terminal developmental processes

10

What is heterochrony?

developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape

11

Recapitulation refers to what law?

biogenetic law (Haeckel)
somatic traits in ancestral adults appear in
juveniles of descendant species

12

What is hypermorphosis?

development of the character in the descendant continues beyond the point at which it stopped in the ancestor ie. delayed maturation

13

What is acceleration?

character develops at a higher rate in the descendant than in the ancestor ie. faster

14

Delayed maturation refers to what type of heterochrony?

hypermorphosis

15

What is paedomorphosis?

somatic traits in ancestral juveniles appear in adults of descendant species

16

What is neoteny?

retarded somatic traits; character develops at a lower rate in the descendant than in the ancestor ie. small nose

17

What is progenesis?

accelerated maturation

18

What types of heterochrony are opposites?

progenesis (delayed maturation) and hypermorphosis (late maturation)

19

Maturation is linked to what hormone?

thyroid

20

What experiment showed that thyroid hormone is linked to maturation?

Exposure to thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates maturation of axolotl

21

Feminization in amphibians due to what pesticide?

atrazine

22

What are homeotic genes?

encode proteins that regulate expression of
genes that determine how totipotent cells develop

23

What are regulatory enhancers?

‘gene switches’ (DNA sequences) that are bound by transcriptional regulators

24

What are Hox genes?

homeotic genes whose products direct cellular development via coordinating the expression of genes within its ‘regulome’

25

What is a regulome

regulatory components of a cell

26

What is co-linearity?

parallel body plan-chromosome arrangement observed in animals

27

What is a homeobox?

conserved amino acid sequence found in Hox encoded proteins that binds DNA to help regulate
transcription

28

Wingspots deployed in sexual displays in bees is a result of what?

not binding of specific transcription factors

29

What is a paralog?

gene in an organism is duplicated to occupy two different positions in the same genome

30

What is paralog sub-functionalization?

paralogous ’division of labor’

31

What is paralog neo-functionalization?

paralogs evolve novel attributes

32

The structural similarity between Hox gene arrangement and body plans in fruit flies and mice is described as
a) garrulity
b) colinearity
c) neoteny
d) ontogeny

b) colinearity

33

TRUE/FALSE
Appearance of traits formerly seen in the juvenile stage of a species during the adult stage in a descendant species is paedomorphosis

TRUE