Flashcards in Nov 8 Deck (33):
Mutations that result in a non-synonymous substitution occurs most frequently in which codon
Highly expressed genes are typically encoded on the leading strand in bacterial and eukaryotic genomes
What is evolutionary developmental biology?
seeks to understand how organisms transition from immature to mature towards using those processes to infer ancestral relationships and how they have emerged
Who posited that embryos reflect the embryos of ancestral organisms?
What is the scala naturae?
life moves from simple to complex
What is a limitation of scala naturae?
Gross anatomy of adult forms are no more ‘complex’ than the tightly-regulated molecular orchestration of cellular differentiation
What is von Baer’s law?
related species have very similar early forms and distinguish themselves during development
The similarity of stage 1 embryos suggests that...
early traits are resistant to change
novelty emerges later in development
What is the biogenetic law (Haeckel)
developmental progress reflects the evolutionary history of the organisms; evolution produces new species by appending variations on terminal developmental processes
What is heterochrony?
developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape
Recapitulation refers to what law?
biogenetic law (Haeckel)
somatic traits in ancestral adults appear in
juveniles of descendant species
What is hypermorphosis?
development of the character in the descendant continues beyond the point at which it stopped in the ancestor ie. delayed maturation
What is acceleration?
character develops at a higher rate in the descendant than in the ancestor ie. faster
Delayed maturation refers to what type of heterochrony?
What is paedomorphosis?
somatic traits in ancestral juveniles appear in adults of descendant species
What is neoteny?
retarded somatic traits; character develops at a lower rate in the descendant than in the ancestor ie. small nose
What is progenesis?
What types of heterochrony are opposites?
progenesis (delayed maturation) and hypermorphosis (late maturation)
Maturation is linked to what hormone?
What experiment showed that thyroid hormone is linked to maturation?
Exposure to thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates maturation of axolotl
Feminization in amphibians due to what pesticide?
What are homeotic genes?
encode proteins that regulate expression of
genes that determine how totipotent cells develop
What are regulatory enhancers?
‘gene switches’ (DNA sequences) that are bound by transcriptional regulators
What are Hox genes?
homeotic genes whose products direct cellular development via coordinating the expression of genes within its ‘regulome’
What is a regulome
regulatory components of a cell
What is co-linearity?
parallel body plan-chromosome arrangement observed in animals
What is a homeobox?
conserved amino acid sequence found in Hox encoded proteins that binds DNA to help regulate
Wingspots deployed in sexual displays in bees is a result of what?
not binding of specific transcription factors
What is a paralog?
gene in an organism is duplicated to occupy two different positions in the same genome
What is paralog sub-functionalization?
paralogous ’division of labor’
What is paralog neo-functionalization?
paralogs evolve novel attributes
The structural similarity between Hox gene arrangement and body plans in fruit flies and mice is described as