NPH Flashcards Preview

NUTR344 > NPH > Flashcards

Flashcards in NPH Deck (40):
1

herbal products or dietary supplements are mainly used a which NPH

complementary and alternative medicine

2

NPH relevance for clinical nutrition (5)

1. use and potential use in clinical practice
2. widely consumed by population
3. potential adverse effect
4. drug interactions
5. social and cross- cultural relevance

3

evaluating NPH (5)

1. clinical trials
2. pharmacology
3. traditional reputation
4. chemical constituents
5. mechanism of action

4

probiotic potential benefits (3)

1. reduce HTN
2. cholesterol reduction
3. improve GI function

5

definition of functional food

foods enhanced with bioactive ingredients have demonstrated health benefits

6

three factors are attributable to plant chemical constituents

1. medicinal
2. physiological
3. toxicological

7

consider NHPs for

1. CVD
2. HTN
3. diabetes
4. weight loss
5. cancer

8

mechanism of NHP action on CVD (8)

1. anti- oxidant
2. hyperlipidemia reduction
3. metabolic syndrome modulation
4. weight loss
5. anti- inflammatory capacity increases
6. HTN reduction
7. antiplatlet activity
8. postmenopausal estrogen increase

9

Bilberry's current use (6)

1. antioxidant --> polyphenol
2. diabetes
3. retinopathy
4. cataracts
5. macular degeneration
6. atherosclerosis

10

elderberry' current use (3)

1. antioxidant --> polyphenol
2. fever
3. respiratory conditions

11

antioxidant phytochemical (4)

1. alpha tocopherol (vitamin E)
2. carotenoids
3. ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
4. phenolics (simple, flavonoids, tannins)

12

garlic

sulfur contain molecules

13

garlic's current use (6)

1. CVD (HTN, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial occlusive disease)
2. anti- cancer
3. antimicrobial
3. modest reduction on total cholesterol and TG
4. hematology: inhibits platelets aggregation
5. chemopreventive --> colon and stomach

14

what can plant sterol lower?

blood cholesterol

15

silymarin and fenugreek

antidiabetic phytochemicals

16

potential mechanism of action of antidiabetic phytochemicals (9)

1. delay gastric emptying
2. reduce absorption of CHO into blood
3. increase insulin secretion
4. insulin replacement
5. insulinometic agents
6. reduce hepatic glucose output
7. increase insulin sensitivity
8. weight loss
9. alter renal glucose handling

17

weight loss

garcinia cambogia
chromium picolinate
ephedra
caffeine
green tea
hoodia
green coffee bean extract
glucomanan
diuretics and laxatives

18

weight loss mechanism (7)

1. block dietary fat absorption
2. increase FA oxidation or reduce FA synthesis
3. modulate CHO metabolism
4. increase satiety
5. increase energy expenditure
6. increase water elimination
7. appetite: soluble fiber and anorexic agent

19

methylxanthines and exorphins

anorexic agents

20

garcinia cambogia(3)

1. hydroxycitric acid
2. weight loss
3. increase FA oxidation or reduce FA synthesis

21

ephedra (6)

1. increase energy expenditure
2. produce peripheral vasoconstriction and raise BP
3. CVS stimulant
4. treat asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis
5. banned in US
6. >8mg/ dose, or mixed with caffeine banned in CAD

22

caffeine(2)

1. suppress appetite
2. increase energy expenditure

23

diretics and laxatives (3)

1. modulate CHO metabolism
2. block fat absorption
3. increase water elimination

24

tumeric (4)

curcumin
1. antioxidant
2. anti- inflammatory
3. strong activity in cell- signaling pathways
4. limited clinical data

25

potential mechanism of anti-carcinogenic activity of NHP (6)

1. anti- hormone function
2. antioxidant
3. bind with bile acid and other potential carcinogen
4. potentiation of immune response
5. cell signaling pathways
6. detoxication

26

glutathione- s- transferase

detoxication enzyme

27

cytyochrome p-450 mono- oxygenases

detoxication enzyme

28

indole- 3- carbinol (4)

1. detoxication enzyme
2. increase 2- hydroxylation of estrogens via cytP450 induction
3. modulate phase 1 and 2 detoxication enzymes --> modulating carcinogen metabolism
4. indirect antioxidant activity

29

isoflavonoids --> soy

phytoestrogen

30

lignans --> flaxseed

phytoestrogen

31

phytoestrogen (3)

1. bind to estrogen receptor
2. can show weak estrogenic activity
3. antioxidants

32

pre- menopausal

estrogen antagonists

33

post- menopausal

weak estrogen

34

soy bean (3)

1. hot flashes (isoflavones)
2. CVD risk (lipid markers, BP, endothelial function)
3.bone health

35

Warfarin with ?

anticoagulant herbs

36

serotinin- reuptake inhibitors with ?

St. John's Wort

37

St. John's Wort

decreased drug availability

38

enhanced drug availability

grapefruit (CYP3A4 enzyme)

39

anthroquinone- containing herbs with ?

drug absorption

40

concerns

adulteration
drug/herb interactions
contamination
pregnancy and lactation
quality control
hepatoxicity