Flashcards in NPTE Exam Review Deck (30):
What is the action of the popliteus
Popliteus IR the tibia to unlock the knee during flexion
What direction should you mobilize the tibia to produce extension
Anterior and ER
Clear adhesive semipermeable membrane dressings. Permeable to atmospheric oxygen and moisture vapor yet impermeable to water, bacteria and environmental contaminents. Are nonabsorptive.
Adhesive wafers containing hydroactive/ absorptive particles that interact with wound fluid to form a gelatinous mass over the wound bed. May be either occlsuive or semi-occlusive. Available in paste form that can be used as a filler for shallow cavity wounds Protects partial thickness wounds- wounds with mild exudate. These help maintain a moist wound environment and are impermable to external bacteria
water or glycerine based gels. insoluble in water. available in solid sheets, amorphous gels or impregnated gauze. Absorptive capacity varies. These rehydrate wound beds but provide minimal to moderate absorptions. Will require a secondary dressing
Semipermeable membranes that are either hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Vary in thickness absorptive capacity and adhesive properties. Manage min to heavy exudate. can be used as secondary dressing on wounds that require packing. Do not use on dry wounds
soft, absorpant, nonwoven dressings derived from seaweed that have a fluffy. cottonlike appearance. React with wound exudate to form a viscous hydrophilic gel mass over the wound area. Can manage wounds with large amounts of exudate or with a combination of exudate and necrosis. Can be used on infected and non infected wounds and to fill dead space. Do not use for light exudate wounds.
made of cotton or synthetic fabric that is absorptive and permeable to water and oxygen. May be used wet, moist, dry or impregnated with petrolatum, antispetics and other agents. can fill deadspace or tunneling, can be used as wet to dry can be used for continuous dry or continuous moist.
Stage 1 Pressure Ulcer
nonblanchable erythema of intact skin. May include changes in skin temperature (warm or cool) tissue consistnecy (firm or boggy) and/or sensation (pain/itching)
Stage 2 Pressure Ulcer
Partial-thickness skin loss, involves epidermis, dermis or both. Ulcer is superficial. Presents clinically as an abrasion, blister or shallow crater
Stage 3 Pressure Ulcer
Full-thickness skin loss; involves damage to or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. May extend down to but not through underlying fascia. Presents clinically as a deep crater
Stage 4 Pressure Ulcer
Full-thickness skin loss; involves extensive destruction, tissue necrosis, or damage to muscle,bone or supporting structures. Undermining and sinus tracts may be present
Unstagable pressure ulcer
tissue depth is obscured due to slough or eschar and extent of damage cannot be determined
deep tissue injury pressure ulcer
discolored area of tissue (e.g bruise) that is not reversible and will likely progress to a full-thickness injury
First degree epidermal burns
damage is to epidermis only. pink or red appearance; no blistering (dry surface) minimal edema tenderness, delayed pain
second degree, superficial partial-thickness burn
epidermis and upper layers of dermis are damaged. bright pink or red appearance. blanching with brisk capillary refll. Blisters, moist surface, weeping. moderate edema. painful, sensitive to the touch, temperature changes.
second degree, Deep Partial-thickness burn
severe damage to epidermis and dermis with injury to nerve endings, hair follicles and sweat glands. mixed red or waxy white appearance. Blanching with slow capillary refill. broken blisters, wet surface. marked edema. sensitive to pressure but insensitive to light touch or soft pinprick.
third degree- full thickness burns
complete destruction of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissues; may extend into muscle. white (ischemic), charred, tan or black appearance. no blanching; poor distal circulation. parchment like dry leathery surface; depressed area. Little pain, nerve endings are destroyed.
fourth degree- subdermal burn
complete destruction of epidermis, dermis with involvment of subcutaneous tissue and muscle. charred appearance. destruction of vascular system may lead to additional necrosis. from electrical burns; prolonged contact with flame. Additional complications likely with electrical burns: ventricular fibrillation, acute kidney damage, spinal cord damage.
Lidocaine, Xylocaine polarity
negative (calcium deposits)
hyaluronidase polarity (wydase)
positive (edema reduction)
positive (fungal infections)
calcium or magnesium polarity
positive (muscle spasm)
negative (muskuloskeletal inflammatory conditions)
positive (muskuloskeletal infamatory conditions)