NSAIDs 2: Food producing and performance animals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NSAIDs 2: Food producing and performance animals Deck (33):

Name 4 indications for NSAIDs

- analgesic
- anti-inflammatory
- anti-pyretic
- anti-thrombotic


2 broad effects of corticosteroids

- genomic (block transcription of inflammatory mediators)
- non-genomic


Name drugs which must NEVER be used in food producing animals in UK?

- Phenybutazone
- chloramphenicol
- metronidazole
- benzyl-penicillin (crystapen)
- metoclopramide
- lidocaine
- gentamicin/ amikacin


Human side effects of phenylbutazone

- fatal blood dyscrasias
- liver problems
- no safe determined minimum residue limit


Which species are 'food producing'

- cattle
- sheep
- pigs
- goats
- horses
- chickens
- fish
- pot-bellied pigs (even if pets)
- pygmy goat (even if pets)
* camelids are a grey area*


How do we use bute in horses?

make a note in section A of passport


Why can't we use phenylbutazone in camelids?

- not legal under EU regulations in food producing animals
- oral powder not bioavailable in ruminants
- half life in llamas


Which species have no licensed NSAIDs?

- goats
- sheep
- camelids


Outline the order of the cascade

1. vet med authorised in UK in another spp or for a different condition in same spp
2. med authorised in UK for human or vet med product not authorised in UK but in a member state (must be in a food producing animal) in accordance with import certificate from VMD
3. medicine prescribed by vet prepared extemporaneously by vet, pharmacist or person holding manufacturer authorisation


What are the minimum withdrawals for drugs under cascade?

- 7 d (eggs, milk)
- 28d (meat and poultry)
- 500 degree days meat from fish


List NSAIDs that are licensed for food animals - 5

- MELOXICAM: cattle, pigs, horses
- FLUNIXIN: cattle, pigs, horses
- KETOPROFEN: cattle, pigs, horses
- CARPROFEN: cattle, horses
- TOLFENAMIC ACID: cattle, pigs


Outline flunixin meglumine in food animals:
- species
- use
- side effects

- used in sheep/goats with cattle dosage under cascade
- alpacas under cascade dose for horses
- USE:
- visceral and ophthalmic pain
- systemic inflammation (mastitis, metritis)
- pain relief after elective surgeries
- SIDE EFFECTS: decreased cortisol, increased feed intake, increased daily weight gain


Describe meloxicam in food animals
- spp
- action
- uses

- most common NSAID in food animals
- licensed: cattle, pigs, horses
- preferential COX-2 inhib
- prolonged half life (esp. cattle)
- pain relief after sx
- now licensed for 'relief of post-op pain following dehorning calves'
- effective against: systemic inflammation, visceral and ophthlamic pain, lameness in cattle


Describe ketoprofen in food animals:
- action
- use
- spp

- non-selective COX inhib
- short half life (limits use, multiple dose = off label)
- some reduction of bovine lameness
- some short term effects in toxic mastitic
- licensed and useful for reducing udder oedema in cattle
- not as effective as analgesic in elective sz or after LDA sx vs. other NSAIDs
- cattle, pigs, horses


Describe carprofen in food animals

- non-selective COX inhib in large animals
- prolonged half life in cattle, esp young animals (


Describe tolfenamic acid in food animals
- use
- spp

- not commonly used
- use: BRDC and acute mastitis as anti-inflammatory
- spp: cattle, pigs


Which might affect your choice of NSAID in food animals? 5

- spp licensed
- cost
- drug familiarity
- milk and meat withdrawals


3 main adverse effects of NSAIDs in food animals

* abomasal ulcer
- renal toxicity
- care with hepatic dz


Which NSAIDs are licensed in horses? 8

- meloxicam
- flunixin
- phenylbutazone
- suxibuzone
- vedaprofen
- firocoxib
- carprofen
- ketoprofen


What might affect your choice of NSAID in horses?

- familiarity / clinician preference
- cost
- COX 2 selective vs. non-selective
- intended/ labelled use


Describe phenylybutazone in horses

- non-selective COX1/2
- no evidence of tissue specificity
- less analgesic effects than flunixin meglumine


Describe suxibuzone in horses:
- what
- compare with bute

- pro-drug of phenylbutazone
- given orally
- more palatable vs. bute
- more expensive vs. bute


Describe flunixin meglumine in horses:
- action
- use

- non-selective COX1/2
- no evidence of tissue specificity
- good analgesic and effective vs. systemic inflammation


Describe meloxicam in horses:
- action
- use (2)
- dose

- COX2 preferential
- licensed for use in colic, acute/chronic MSK disorders
- pharmacokinetics show 2x daily dosing would improve efficacy


Describe ketoprofen in horses:
- action

- non-selective
- supposed to also inhibit lipoxygenase (no evidence)


Describe carprofen in horses
- use

- non-selective
- licensed: MSK disorders and sx


Describe firocoxib in horses
- use
- action
- side effects

- only licensed COX2 specific inhib in horses
- long half life (takes 3d to reach steady plasma level and affect lameness levels, takes 7 d to reach peak plasma level)
- licensed use: OA, reduction in lameness associated pain, achieves high levels in eye
- seems to have less GIT side effects than other NSAIDs


Name 3 main side effects in horses

- renal toxicity
- phlebitis


Outline GIT toxicity in horses d/t NSAIDs

- gastric and oral ulcers (sign of toxicity - dose too high)
- ulcer of SI and LI mucosa
- right dorsal colitis (this is a very sensitive area to bute). initially develop hypoalbuminaemia then neutropaenia, diarrhoea, colic. PGE2 and PGI2 are cytoprotective to mucosa


Describe renal toxicity in horses d/t NSAIDs

- papillary necrosis
- dehydration, volume depletion --> renal vasoconstriction --> PG synthesis and secondary compensatory vasodilation


Describe phlebitis in horses d/t NSAIDs

Perivascular injection --> severe phlebitis and tissue necrosis


Define detection time

approx period of time for which a drug (or its metabolite) can be detected in a horse's system


Define withdrawal time

decided by vet, based on detection time and added safety margin. margin should be determined using professional conduct (differences in size, metabolism, degree of fitness, recent illness or disease)

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