Flashcards in Nucleic Acids Deck (28):
Large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous
Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
What's the central dogma?
DNA >> RNA >> proteins
It is found in nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts
It stores genetic information
It is found in nucleus and cytoplasm
transcription = DNA to RNA
translation = RNA to protein
It has four bases – adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
It has a double stranded molecule forms a HELIX
It has four bases – adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine
Nucleic acid's monomer?
What is made up of:
1. Ribose sugar
2. Nitrogenous bases
-purines: adenine (A) and guanine (G)
-pyrimidines: thymine (T) in DNA only, cytosine (C), uracil (U) in RNA only
3. Phosphate group
If the second carbon of the ribose sugar is attached with OH, what is the type of nucleic acid?
If the second carbon of the ribose sugar is attached with H, what is the type of nucleic acid?
What links nucleotides in a chain ?
Ribose and phosphate form its backbone.
What is antiparallel nature?
It means one strand is oriented 5’ to 3’, the other 3’ to 5’
The double helix consists of:
-2 anti-parallel sugar-phosphate backbones
-nitrogenous bases toward the interior of the molecule
-bases on opposing strands form hydrogen bonds with complementary bases (A with T; G with C)
What is carried in the sequence of nucleotides?
What are the 3 types of RNA?
What is mRNA?
(messenger RNA): it transcribes DNA into RNA
What is rRNA?
(ribosomal RNA): the site for linking amino acids to form a polypeptide.
What is tRNA?
(transfer RNA): brings amino acids to rRNA and adds it to mRNA
An energy-rich molecule used to drive reactions in a cell
It is the adenine nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups