Nucleic Acids and Chromosomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nucleic Acids and Chromosomes Deck (23):
1

List all the purine bases

Guanine Adenine

2

List all the Pyrimidines

Cytosine Thymine Uracil (RNA only)

3

What does a nucleotide consist of

Nitrogenous base Sugar Phosphate Group add pic

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4

What is the difference between a deoxyribose and a ribose

Deoxyribose lacks an oxygen atom that is present in the ribose add pic

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5

In the image below indicate which carbon is linked to the base and which one is linked to the phosphate? add pic

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The 1’ C is linked to the base; the 5’ C is linked to the phosphate.

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6

What is the difference between purines and pyrimidines?

Purines have two rings whilst pyrimidines have one ring add pic

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7

Define nucleoside

Base + (deoxy)ribose = nucleoside NO PHOSPHATE

8

Name the corresponding Nucleoside for the bases listed below. Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil Thymine

(deoxy)adenosine (deoxy)guanosine (deoxy)cytidine (deoxy)uridine (deoxy)thymidine Pyrimidines end with dine Purines end with sine add pic

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9

What is a nucleotide?

Base + ribose + phosphate = nucleotide add pic

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10

Name the nucleotide which consists of a adenine base bonded to 3 phosphate groups and a ribose

Adenosine triphosphate add pic

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11

Name the nucleotide which consists of a cytosine base bonded to 3 phosphates and a deoxyribose sugar.

deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) add pic

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12

Explain the structure of DNA?

A long chain of deoxyribonucleotide units linked by phosphodiester links. The bases point inwards and the flat planes are perpendicular to the helix. The 3’-OH of sugar of one nucleotide is linked to phosphate group, which in turn is joined to 5’-OH of adjacent sugar. The chain has two ends, the 5’ end and the 3’ end. It is not symmetrical. The two chains are held togethere by hydrogen bonds between bases A and T C and G The secondary stricture of DNA is a right handed Double Helix, with the negative charges outside Phosphate sugar backbone add pic

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13

What bonds link nucleotides togethere

phosphodiester bond

14

What is the primary sequence

linear sequence of the bases. by convention, the nucleotide sequence is specified in the 5' to 3' direction

15

What is the secondary structure of DNA

right-handed double helix

16

What does " the chains are antiparallel" mean?

The chains are antiparallel - they run in opposite directions.

17

Lable in the diagram below the minor and major groves? add pic

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add pic

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18

Name ways of melting or disassociating the two strands of DNA.

High temperature or low salt concentration

19

Name ways of re-annealing or hybridise two DNA strands?

Cool or high salt concentration

20

Define karyotype

A karyotype is an organised profile of someone’s chromosomes

21

What does chromatin condense into?

Chromosomes

22

What is the lowest level of packing?

nucleosome

23

What does a nucleosome consits of?

consists of DNA wrapped around histone proteins. add pic

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