Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids (German) week 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids (German) week 1 Deck (15):
1

Nucleotide structure components

-pentose ring
-purine or pyrimidine base
-one to three phosphates
NO PHOSPHATE is a nucleoside

2

Nucleic acid stucture

nucleotides connected by phosphodiester bonds

3

3 important properties of NAs

Information transfer
energy transfer
signal transductions

4

Purines

two ring structure
Adenine and Guanine

5

Pyrimidines

one ring structure
purine, thymine(DNA) and uracil(RNA)

6

Key differences of DNA and RNA

-#2 carbon in RNA has hydroxy group
-RNA is more reactive
-Thymine vs Uracil
-DNA confined to nucleus
-RNA found throughout the cell

7

Nucleic Acid Complex structures

-Primary: just the nucleotides with linked by phosphodiester bonds
-Secondary: H bonds between the antiparallel strands with purine bonding with pyrimidine and hairpin loops
-Tertiary: the double helix with the major and minor groove (A(tight), B(loose), and Z (very loose) forms)
-Quaternary: when DNA is wrapped in histones

8

4 types of RNA

-rRNA
-mRNA
-tRNA
-siRNA, shRNA, aRNA

9

rRNA

RNA that forms the structural and functional backbone of ribosome

10

tRNA

RNA adapter molecules tethered to AAs that interact with mRNA to form polypeptides

11

mRNA

DNA transcript that encodes proteins for production

12

Regulatory RNAs (aRNA, shRNA, siRNA)

A large class of RNA that regulates translation, signaling transduction

13

RNA primary structure

-single stranded for the most part
-formed from DNA transcription by RNA Pol
-Mirror of the DNA template sequence or same as non-template strand

14

Nucleotides are energy rich substrates and Coenzymes. How?

-electron rich
-contain phosphate group high in free energy
-phosphate hydrolysis moves electrons to perform work
-ATP
-NAD+

15

Nucleotides as signaling molecules. How?

cAMP and cGMP