NURS 302 EXAM 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NURS 302 EXAM 1 Deck (285):
1

a change in skin color, less than 1 cm- freckles, flat moles (nevi)

macule

2

a solid raised lesion, less than 1cm - wart, elevated mole

papule

3

elevated, irregular-shaped area of edema - insect bites, urticaria, allergic reaction

wheal

4

raised solid lesion, 1 to 2 cm, - lipoma

nodule

5

raised lesions filled with clear fluid, less than 1 cm - varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles)

vesicle

6

fluid-flled lesion, greater than 1 cm- blister

bulla

7

elevated lesion that contain pus - pus - acne, impetigo

pustule

8

enlarged scar, caused by excessive collagen formation during healing

keloid

9

linear, hollowed out - abrasion or scratch

excoriation

10

linear crack or break which extends into dermis- athletes foot

fissure

11

loss of epidermis, concave, decubitus ulcer- pressure sore

ulcer

12

abnormal growth in basal layer, most common, least aggressive, pearl colored, depressed center, rolled border

basal cell carcinoma

13

atypical squamous cells, more aggressive, slow growing, firm.

squamous cell carcinoma

14

form melanocytes (cells that produce pigment)

can metastasize to any organ, common in young people, may arise from moles

malignant melanoma

15

what does ABCDE stand for?

asymmetry
borders
color
diameter
evolution

16

inflammatory disorder of sebaceous glands

acne

17

liver spots- "age spots" (senile lentigo & lentigo maligna)

lentigo

18

chronic, genetis, redness, dry patches, & heavy silver surface. lifelong with remissions and exacerbations

psoriasis

19

benign plaques 3-20 mm with variety of surfaces

seborrheic keratosis

20

arrhythmic vesicles, honey colored, highly contagious, face, arms, legs & butt

impetigo

21

diffuse inflammation with various lesions, preceding wounds, common in adults.

cellulitis

22

inflammed hair follicle, red lesion or pustules, in eye it is called a stye

folliculitis

23

absess or boil, deep folliculitis, pus filled, painful, firm

furuncles (abscess or boil)

24

herpes simplex type I is?

fever blister

25

herpes simplex type II is ?

genital herpes

26

herpes zoster is ?

shingles

27

macroles =

flat

28

pacroles =

raised

29

type of macrole that is a yeast-like fungus?

candidiasis

30

ringworm of scalp, patchy hairloss

tinea capitis

31

ringworm of the body, red circles

tinea corporis

32

athletes foot, itchy

tinea pedis

33

moist, dark areas, treated with powders or creams

candidiasis (oral thrush)

34

pediculosis is?

lice

35

pediculosis capitis is?

head lice

36

reaction with something you've touched

contact dermatitis

37

itchy rash with raised areas, check airway

urticaria (hives)

38

what is a burn?

injury to tissues caused by:
heat
chemicals
electrical currents
radiation

39

first degree burns affect what layers of skin?

outer layers of epidermis
PARTIAL THICKNESS
red, pink, painful, usually no blisters

40

second degree affects what layers of skin?

entire epidermis and dermis
FULL THICKNESS
paintful, moist, red, blistered, and edema

41

third degree affects what layers?

extend into subcutaneous tissue & may involve muscle and bone

waxy white or yellow to tan, brown, deep red, or black

hard, dry, leathery

no pain

42

what is used to estimate percentage of total body surface area of burn (TBSA)

rule of nines

43

skeleton is made of

bones and joints

44

what are the two systems in musculoskeletal?

skeletal muscles and skeleton

45

2 types of connective tissue

cartilage and bone

46

rigid tissue, contains crystals and blood vessels, calcium and salts

bone

47

gel-like and made of water

cartilage

48

two types of bone

cancellous(spongy) and compact

49

outer shell of bone, more rigid

compact

50

inferior bone, lattice-like pattern

cancellous (spongy)

51

end of bone

epiphysis

52

shaft of bone

diaphysis

53

what part contains bone marrow?

diaphysis

54

makes blood cells

red marrow

55

contains fat

yellow marrow

56

widening before end of bone

metaphysis

57

growth plate is called?

epiphyseal cartilage

58

when does the growth plate (epiphyseal cartilage) calcify?

after puberty

59

to keep bones healthy they need _____ ____.

mechanical stress

60

bone building

osteoblasts

61

bone chewing cells--function in bone resorption

osteoclasts

62

parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released when blood calcium levels ____

decrease

63

what are the 2 stages of osteoblasts....(bone building)

ossification and calcification

64

how does PTH increase blood calcium?

forms bones, kidneys, and intestines

65

released by thyroid gland when blood calcium is too highinhibits calcium release and reduce osteoclasts

calcitonin

66

calcitonin reduces the _____

osteoclasts--which break up bones to release calcium

67

fractures can be classified as:

complete or incomplete(green stick or partial)
open or closed
or direction of fracture line
pathologic, stress, or transchondral

68

parallel to axis

linear

69

sloping angle to shaft

oblique

70

encircles shaft

spiral

71

straight accross

transverse

72

what type of break happens in osteoporosis patients?

pathologic

73

what type of break happens in athletes?

stress

74

what type of break happens in adolescence?

transchondral

75

signs in symptoms of fractures?

pain
swelling
loss of function
deformity
no mobility
decreased sensation

76

how can you diagnose fractures?

X-rays
manifestations
history

77

3 ways to treat fractures

reduction
immobilization
preservation and restoration of function

78

reduction means?

restore

79

how do you reduce a fracture?

closed manipulation (manual pressure)
or surigical reduction (hardware by surgery)

80

how do you immobolize a fracture?

splints or external devices

81

how do you preserve and restore function of a fracture?

exercise to maintain strength and reduce joint stiffness

82

common way to pull bones back to correct spot. used to control spasms, & immobilize area before surgery

traction

83

what does ORIF stand for?

open reduction internal fixation

84

what are there 4 phases of fracture healing?

HEMATOMA- week 1
SOFT CALLUS- week 2-3
HARD CALLUS- week 4-16
REMODELING- week 17 and beyond

85

bone marrow or adipose tissue at fracture site releases fat droplets into circulation.

frequently occurs after fracture of long (femur) and pelvic bones

fat embolism syndrome

86

result of increased pressure within a limited space

causes decreased blood flow, tissue hypoxia, and necrosis

fascia unable to accommodate excessive edema

compartment syndrome

87

compartment syndrome is caused by:

bleeding and edema, related to fractures and bone surgery

or application of tight fitting dressing, splint, or cast

88

what are the 5 P's of compartment syndrome:

pain
parestriesia
pail or cool
paresis
pulselessness

89

hallmark symptom of compartment syndrome?

severe pain out of proportion to initial injury

90

what are the 2 ways to reduce compartment pressures

fasciotomy and cast splitting or remove constrive dressings

91

tear or injury to a tendon(muscle to bone)

strain

92

tear or injury to ligament (bone to bone)

sprain

93

complete seperation of a tendon or ligament from bony attachment site

avulsion

94

loss of articulate of bone ends in joint- most common site: shoulder

dislocation

95

partial dislocation

subluxation

96

inflammation of a tendon

tendonitis

97

inflammation of a bursa, caused by repeated trauma

bursitis

98

type of bursitis caused by wound infection

septic bursitis

99

what is the acronym for strains & sprains

RICE
rest ice compression elevation

100

bone infection:

osteomyelitis

101

causes of osteomyelitis

open wound or from blood borne infection

bacteria, fungi, parasites, & viruses

102

open wound with direct contamination.

ex: open fractures, surgery, penetrating wounds

exogenous

103

blood borne

endogenous (hematogenous)

104

what happens in children with hematogenous osteomyelitis:

purulent exudate inside bone. affects long bones, damages arteries to bone. may penetrate skin or involve joints

105

what happens in adults with hematogenous osteomyelitis:

spine, pelvis, and small bones (affects joint space)

106

treatment for hematogenous osteomyelitis:

antibiotics, debrievement, surgery, hyperbaric

107

decreased bone mineral density.

caused by osteoporosis

osteopenia

108

porous bone, poorly mineralized bone, decreased bone density and strength.
reduced bone mass/density and an imbalance of bone resorption and formation

osteoporosis

109

1st line of defense to the body

ear wax
tears
saliva
vomit
defecation
urination
skin
digestive acids
normal bacterial flora

110

is inflammation good or bad? why or why not?

good because it's a protective response

111

caused by activation of chemicals and cellular components found in blood and tissues

inflammation

112

redness

rubor

113

swelling

tumor

114

heat

calor

115

pain

dolor

116

loss of function

functio laesa

117

inflammation is the moves ___ & ____

fluid & leukocytes

118

itis follows what?

the name of the infected organ

ex: appendicitis

119

quick/rapid disease

acute

120

long period of time

chronic

121

what type of cell "get to work" during acute inflammation?

leukocytes

122

chronic inflammation is what?

proliferation of blood vessels
tissue necrosis(death)
fibrosis(scarring)

123

endothelial cells are where?

lining of blood vessels

124

endothelial cells contain what>

antiplatelet and antithrobotic agents
vasodilators & vasoconstricters

125

contain histamines which cause leakiness

mast cells

126

potent effect on cells.
vasoactive--dilates capillaries
increase blood flow
increase vascular permability

histamines

127

circulate in the blood stream until vascular injury occurs.
work to stop bleeding
degranulate

platelets

128

WBCs
adhesion molecules

leukocytes

129

what are the 3 types of leukocytes

neutrophil
eosinophil
basophil

130

1st one on the scene.
mature cell
removes debris, dead cells, and bacteria
works then dies

neutrophil

131

cell ingests and gets rid of foreign matter
neutrophils and macrophages
leave blood stream and go to site of inflammation

phagocytosis

132

mildly phagocytic
2 jobs: defend against parasites & help limit inflammation by degrading histamine

eosinophils

133

important in allergic reactions

basophils and mast cells

134

basophils are a precursor for _____ cells.

mast cells

135

monocytes become _____. which kill and eat debris

macrophages

136

these replace the neutrophils and are important in chronic inflammation

macrophages

137

immune system is challenged by foreign substances which causes the body to create antigens. these two things are the immune systems response

lymphocytes and plasma

138

produced by bone marrow and injure antigens

B cells

139

made by thymus and attack antigen directly

T cells

140

both B & T cells reside in peripheral ____ ____ once mature

lymph tissue

141

recognize and eliminate cells infected with viruses and abnormal cells (Cancerous)

bind to infected or tumor cells & kill them

natural killer cells (NKs)

142

type of exudate that is clear liquid and makes blisters

serous

143

like pneumonia, blood clot-more serious.

"whited out" in chest xray

fibrinous

144

found on mucous membranes.

necrotic cells in fiber & pus

membranous

145

purulent (discharging pus)

bacterial

146

RBCs.

blood clot

bleeding, hemorrhagic

147

pus producing

pyogenic

148

pocket of pus

abcess

149

epithelial surface eroded, necrotic

ulceration

150

what are some symptoms of inflammation?

WBC count increase
"shift to the left"
lymph node changes

151

what does "shift to the left mean"?

immature leukocytes can't keep up with infections

152

what are way to tell if a lymph node is cancerous?

not painful, not tender

153

normal core temperature must be?

97.0-99.5

154

fever is higher when?

in the evening/night

155

fever is lower in the?

morning

156

What controls core temp?

hypothalamus

157

difference between heat production and heat loss

body temp

158

what is the body main heat source?

metabolism

159

released when you need an increase in temp?

epinephrine and non epinephrine

160

what is shifted to produce heat, not energy?

body metabolism

161

what is a result of body metabolism being shifted?

weakness and fatigue

162

doing this 3-5 times increase in body temp?

shivering and chattering of teeth

163

what causes an increased body temp?

physical exertion

164

what is produced by muscle and viscera?

heat

165

heat is transferred in the blood to what?

body surfaces

166

what is an example of heat loss?

AV shunts

167

when do you have more blood volume?

hot weather

168

when do you have less blood volume?

cold weather

169

when is heat lost?

-radiation--60%
-conduction--cooling blankets
-convection
-evaporation

170

what is the scientific name for fever?

pyrexia

171

what is caused by pyrogens?

pyrexia (fever)

172

causes of fever?

-bacteria
-myocardial infarctions
-neurogenic fever
-brain bleeds
-increase in intracranial pressure

173

purposes of fever?

-cook the poison
-antiparetics
-immune function enhanced with small temp increases

174

fever is considered harmful when it reaches?

above 105

175

what are the patterns of fever?

-intermittent
-remittent
-sustained
-recurrent or relapsing

176

sepsis, abscesses, bacterial endocarditis

intermittent

177

viral upper respiratory infections

remittent

178

drug fever

sustained

179

TB, malaria

recurrent or relapsing

180

Your heart rate normally increases how many bpm with an increase of 1 degree fahrenheit?

10 BPM

181

when you have fever what also increases?

respiratory rate

182

when you have fever you are also seen to have?

-dehydration
-chills (draw blood cultures)

183

4 stages of fever?

-prodrome (warning)
-chills
-flush
-defervescence (sweating)

184

what are some signs that you may have fever?

-anorexia
-myalgia
-arthralgia
-fatigue
-respirations increase

185

if a patient has chills you should do what?

draw blood cultures

186

there are changes in fever because of?

increased oxygen need and metabolic rate

use of protein instead of glucose

187

what are some changes in the elderly and children?

elderly see confusion and agitation
febrile seizures
fever blisters

188

FUO

fever unknown origin

189

treatment for fever

spongebaths, or alcohol solutions
cooling blankets
fluids, carbs
antipyretic drugs

190

have a high risk for bacterial infections

neonates

191

limited signs of infection

lethargy, poor feeding, cyanosis

neonates, young infants

192

the elderly's lower basal temp is?

97.6

193

in the elderly... fever is how many degrees above the baseline?

2

194

if the elderly don't show signs of fever, we should check for

change in mental status
weight loss
weakness
fatigue

195

in elderly use what kind of thermometers?

rectal or tympanic

not oral

196

tissue repair for same type cells. sometimes there is no trace of injury

regeneration

197

repairs connective tissues which are scars or fibrosis

replacement

198

if regression is impossible-----

replacement with connective tissue and scar forms

199

growth of new blood vessels

angiogenesis

200

when is granulation good?

when its red and moist

201

3 ways to repair connective tissue

granulation
angiogenesis
scar forming by replacing CT

202

primary healing will.....

heal fine cause the cut was intended

203

secondary healing will heal....

from bottom up and will have trouble

204

"collagen on overdrive"

keloids

205

what affects wound healing?

nutritional status
blood flow & oxygen delivery


(Diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids, infections, and foreign bodies in wound)

206

in the elderly does their skin change?

yes

207

elderly are in increased risk of.....

chronic wounds

208

do elderly have problem healing?

yes

209

normal ranges for pH?

7.35-7.45

210

normal range for PaCO2?
(partial pressure of carbon dioxide)

35-45

211

normal range for HCO3?

22-26

212

who is most sensitive to fluid deficits?

infants

213

happens to cell in isotonic?

stays same

214

what happens to cell in hypertonic?

shrinks

215

what happens to cell in hypotonic?

swells

216

Water follows...

salt

217

normal levels of salt?

135-145 mEq/L

218

Hyponatremia is....

decreased salt; under 135

219

do hyponatremia patients have floppy of twitchy symptoms?

floppy

220

hypernatremia is....

increased salt; over 145

221

do hypernatriema patients have floppy or twitchy?

twitchy

222

normal potassium levels?

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

223

hypokalemia is....

decrease in potassium; less than 3.5

224

hypokalemia; floppy or twitchy?

floppy

225

hyperkalema is....

increase in potassium; over 5.0


arrhythmias

226

hyperkalemia; floppy or twitchy?

floppy THAN twitchy

227

normal calcium levels

8.5-10.5 mg/dL

228

hypocalcemia is...

decrease in calcium; less than 8.5

229

hypocalcemia; floppy or twitchy?

twitchy

230

hypercalcemia is....

increase in calcium; over 10.5

231

hypercalcemia; floppy or twitchy?

floppy

232

sperm and egg

gametes

233

somatic cells are..

body cells

234

in somatic cells how many chromosomes are there?

46

235

XX

girl

236

XY

boy

237

23/23 pairs identical are called

autosomes

238

everyone inherits one copy of each ____ from each parent

gene

239

presence of only one copy of a chromosome....LETHAL

monosomy

240

presence of 3 copies of chromosome...may survive

trisomy

241

birth defects are called..

congenital defects

242

congenital defects are caused by:

environmental factors
genetic factors

243

Disorders are almost always associated with what chromosome?

X; MOMs

244

Risk factors for genetic problems:

miscarriage
maternal/paternal influences
familial
type 2 DM
VSD
Hematology
Age
Nutrition
Environment
Multifactorial

245

chromosome disorder on the 21st chromosome

down syndrome--- trisomy 21

246

down syndrome is a predisposition for:

Congenital heart disease
leukemia
hypothyroidism
hirschsprung's Dx----colon

247

S&S of down syndrome?

physical
intellectual---moderate to severe
sensory---eyes are different
one crease across palm(simian crease)

248

Downs syndrome problems?

-respiratory infections (since tongue protrudes)
-vital signs, congestion, can't feed
-prevent infection
-cardiac
-monitor---urine, edema, feeding, skin color

249

deletion or abnormal x on chromosome 45

turner's syndrome

250

what does turners affect?

women; they will only have 1 X chromosome

251

turner's is a predisposition for:

hypothyroidism
aortic coarctication (aorta narrows)
renal structure
behavioral and learning disturbances

252

what do the females look like with turners?

short
webbed neck
underdeveloped breasts
imperfect ovaries
normal intellect
frequent UTIs
must give estrogen prior to 12 to develop normally
watch for cardiac, renal, thyroid dysfunction

253

how many turner's babies are spontaneously aborted?

99%

254

syndrome in which you have X-linked one or more extra x chromsome

klinefelter's syndrome

255

how many male births are affected by this?

1:850

256

how to klinfelter's look?

tall lean body
long legs
normal intellect
testicular dyngenesis (testes don't develop)
gynecomastia
sterility
voice doesn't change after puberty
sparse facial hair

257

abnormalities in klinfelter's?

scoliosis
dental
cardiac
pulmonary

258

metabolic disorder --- lack enzyme which converts phyenylalanine to tyrosine

phenylketonuria (PKU)

259

if untreated PKU can cause

severe retardation
seizures
death

260

how many are affected by PKU?

1:15,000

261

when are people screened for PKU?

at birth

262

S&S of PKU

musky odor to urine
failure to thrive
mental retardation
seizures, vomiting, rashes

263

PKU management.....

breastfeeding
blood tests
special dairy products
avoid high protein foods
some veggies
monitor nutrition

264

Problems with PKU

if phenylalanine is not converted it can increase to toxic levels

irreversable CNS probs. and mental retardation

Seizures

265

degeneration of cerebral cortex.
25-55 yrs of age
neutrotransmitters loss---GABA

huntington's disease

266

connective tissue disorder
chromosome 15
1:20,000

marfan's syndrome

267

marfan's often causes what?

aortic aneurysm--common cause of early death

268

in marfan's syndrome you should monitor what?

growth, development, vision

CARDIAC

give beta blockers for heart probs.

269

absence of tyrosinase---needed for melanin production

albinism

270

there are two types (I & II).

which is worse?

type I is worse


it is worse because they have NO melanin in their eyes. type II has some pigment

271

S&S of albinsim

bleeding problems
lung and bowel disease
low vision or legally blind

272

interventions for albinism

screen vision
avoid sun
check for melanomas
wear glasses
genetic/cultural counseling

273

-interruption of development in utero
-feeding difficulties
-risk for aspiration, malnutrition

cleft lip/palate

274

interventions for cleft palate

surgery

speech therapy

social worker

nutrition

audiologist

orthodontist

monitor for ear infections/hearing loss

275

autosomal recessive chromosome disorder

cystic fibrosis

276

cystic fibrosis involves blockages where?

pancreas

277

cystic fibrosis also affects the respiratory system how?

thickened secretions decrease ciliary function

278

cystic fibrosis affects mostly

Caucasians

279

CF patients ____ is not transported. so people perform the ____ test to see if it is secreted through the sweat

NaCl & Kiss test

280

CF leads to ___ side heart failure (for pulmonale)

right

281

Treatment for CF

administer oxygen, but not too much cause it could kill

increase fluids

282

S&S of CF

large protruding abdomen

failure to thrive

steatorrhea ( foul smelling stool)

Biliary obstruction

283

minor-major problems
mental retardation
behavioral problems
intellectual problems
skull, brain malformation
small eye opening, thin upper lip, flat midface

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

284

anacephaly

spinabifida

all women of child bearing age should take this

all enriched grain cereals in US have this

folic acid deficiency

285

TORCH microorganisms

toxoplasmosis
rubella
cytomegalovirus
herpes