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Spring 2014 > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (140)
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1

Chronic disease

Progresses slowly or with little change and lasts a long time.

2

Acute disease

Develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.

acute = sharp

3

Digestion

The process by which food is broken down into absorbable units (nutrients).

Digestion = take apart

4

Absorption

The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.

absorb = suck in

5

Mastication

Chewing

6

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract

The digestive tract. The principle organs are the stomach and the intestines.

gastro = stomach
intestinalis = intestine

7

Digestive system

All the organs and glands associated with the ingestion and digestion of food.

8

The four basic taste sensations:

Sweet, sour, bitter, salty

sometimes savory/umami is included

9

Lumen

The space within a vessel, such as the intestine.

10

Pharynx

The passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus, respectively.

11

Epiglottis

Cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents food from entering it when a person swallows. Closes off the airway so that choking doesn't occur when swallowing.

epi = upon (over)
glottis = back of tounge

12

Esophagus

The food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.

13

Sphincter

A circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening. Found at specific points along the GI tract and regulate the flow of food particles.

Band/binder

14

Esophageal sphincter

A sphincter muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter is also called the cardiac sphincter.

15

Stomach

A muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme.

16

Pyloric sphincter

The circular muscle that separates the stomach from the small intestine and regulates the flow of partially digested food into the small intestine; also called the pylorus or pyloric valve.

pylorus = gatekeeper

17

Small intestine

A 10ft length of small-diameter intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. Its segments are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

18

Gallbladder

The organ that stores and concentrates bile. When it receives the signal that fat is present in the duodenum, the gallbladder concentrates and squirts bile through the bile duct into the duodenum.

19

Pancreas

A gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum. (The pancreas also secretes hormones into the blood that help to maintain glucose homeostasis.)

20

Duodenum

The top portion of the small intestine (about "12 fingers' breadth" long in ancient terminology)/

duodecim = 12

21

Jejunurn

The first 2/5 of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.

22

Ileum

The last segment of the small intestine.

23

Ileocecal valve

The sphincter separating the small and large intestines.

24

Large intestine or colon

The lower portion intestine that completes the digestive process. Its segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.

sigmoid = shaped like the letter S (Sigma in Greek)

25

Appendix

A narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the colon that stores lymph cells.

26

Rectum

The muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.

27

Bolus

A portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time.

bolos = lump

28

Motility

The ability of the GI tract muscles to move.

29

Chyme

The semisolid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.

chymos = juice

30

Peristalsis

Wavelike muscular contradictions of the GI tract that push its contents along.

peri = around
stellein = wrap