Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (140)
Progresses slowly or with little change and lasts a long time.
Develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.
acute = sharp
The process by which food is broken down into absorbable units (nutrients).
Digestion = take apart
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.
absorb = suck in
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The digestive tract. The principle organs are the stomach and the intestines.
gastro = stomach
intestinalis = intestine
All the organs and glands associated with the ingestion and digestion of food.
The four basic taste sensations:
Sweet, sour, bitter, salty
sometimes savory/umami is included
The space within a vessel, such as the intestine.
The passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus, respectively.
Cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents food from entering it when a person swallows. Closes off the airway so that choking doesn't occur when swallowing.
epi = upon (over)
glottis = back of tounge
The food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
A circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening. Found at specific points along the GI tract and regulate the flow of food particles.
A sphincter muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter is also called the cardiac sphincter.
A muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme.
The circular muscle that separates the stomach from the small intestine and regulates the flow of partially digested food into the small intestine; also called the pylorus or pyloric valve.
pylorus = gatekeeper
A 10ft length of small-diameter intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. Its segments are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
The organ that stores and concentrates bile. When it receives the signal that fat is present in the duodenum, the gallbladder concentrates and squirts bile through the bile duct into the duodenum.
A gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum. (The pancreas also secretes hormones into the blood that help to maintain glucose homeostasis.)
The top portion of the small intestine (about "12 fingers' breadth" long in ancient terminology)/
duodecim = 12
The first 2/5 of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.
The last segment of the small intestine.
The sphincter separating the small and large intestines.
Large intestine or colon
The lower portion intestine that completes the digestive process. Its segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.
sigmoid = shaped like the letter S (Sigma in Greek)
A narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the colon that stores lymph cells.
The muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
A portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time.
bolos = lump
The ability of the GI tract muscles to move.
The semisolid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
chymos = juice