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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (69):
1

healthy infants are born with enough iron to last them this long

6 months

2

T/F: an infant who is deficient in iron can receive what they need via the breast milk

false, breast milk contains very little iron and they will need an iron supplement

3

What is the best way to get iron after being 4-6 months old?

fortified cereals and supplements

4

What is the most common nutritional deficiency in infants

iron deficiency anemia (hypochromic, microcytic)

5

What can occur if an infant does not receive enough folate?

megaloblastic anemia

6

How long does a healthy term infant have B12 storage for?

1 year

7

How is B12 deficiency similar and different from folate deficiency?

Both cause a megaloblastic anemia but B12 has neurological sx

8

Vitamin D is synthesized from this molecule in the skin

7-dehydrocholesterol

9

Vitamin D deficiency will result in low serum levels of these 2

calcium and phosphorous

10

How long are children to be kept out of direct sunlight?

Guidelines state that no infant should be in the direct light for first 6 mos of life

11

What is administered in a 1 mg dose to children at birth IM to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn?

vitamin K (phylloquinone)

12

What would lead you to think that an infant had a vitamin K deficiency?

bleeding, bruising, and weakening of bones

13

When does a kid need fluoride? What are the Sx of fluoride excess?

after 6 mos, mottled teeth

14

What is the role of carnitine?

facilitates fatty acid transport across mitochondrial membrane

15

What are 3 benefits of taurine in newborns

neurologic and retinal development, aids bile acid conjugation

16

These 2 amino acids are required in premature babies

cysteine and tyrosine (cysteine may lower requirement for methionine)

17

How much would expect a 7 pound baby (at birth) to weigh at 6 months?

14 pounds, they double weight by 6 months

18

What is an acceptable amount of an infants birthweight for them to LOSE in the first few days of life?

10%

19

What are 4 conditions regarding a newborn's birthweight that require immediate attention?

birthweight < 5th percentile; weight loss > 10%, loss continuing beyond 10 days, weight loss not regained by 3 weeks

20

This is a sensitive measurement of protein-energy metabolism (PEM)

infant body length

21

This device measures infant length in the recumbent position

infanometer

22

What is suggested by a poor head circumference?

poor nutritional status

23

If a woman chooses to forego breast-feeding, then milk from what 3 animals should you ensure that the infant is NOT drinking?

cow, goat, sheep

24

How many times/day should an infant breastfeed/eat

8-12 times per day

25

When are solid foods appropriate to give to an infant?

after 4-6 months; they can chew and swallow by 1 year

26

The WHO recommends this pattern of feeding for 1st year of life?

breast feeding for 6 months; then introduction of soft foods with continued breast feeding

27

Do infant's stomachs empty fast or slow? What is the effect of low levels of zymogenic cells (chief cells)?

slow; low levels of pepsin since zymogenic = pepsinogen

28

Why shouldn?t an infant drink cow's milk?

Their immature stomach cannot breakdown the complex molecules present; also, it can overload the renal system and cause dehydration

29

What is the stomach capacity at birth vs. 1 year later?

20 ml; 200 ml

30

At what age does a child begin to produce lactase? Pancreatic amylase?

birth; 6 months

31

Fat is very important for the growth of this organ in an infant

BRAIN (myelin), and other organs

32

These 2 molecules provide energy to the brain

glucose, ketone bodies

33

How much of the following (in grams) is required per day for an infant: fat, carbs, protein

31, 60, 9.1 (don't forget the 0.1, very important)

34

What usually has more protein, breast milk or formula?

formula

35

When do infant nutrition requirements peak?

first 2 months of life

36

BOTTOM LINE: how much breast milk or formula does an infant need/day to satisfy their requirements?

150 ml/kg/day

37

Breast milk helps to prevent this skin disorder

eczema

38

What is the effect of breastfeeding on post-partum bleeding in the mother?

decreased chances

39

This infant reflex is required for effective breastfeeding

rooting reflex

40

6 contraindications to breastfeeding

HIV positive, ACTIVE TB, HTLV, herpes of the nipple, active drug or alcohol abuse

41

What happens at birth that stimulates milk production in the mother?

sudden drop in progesterone with continued prolactin production

42

What is unique about the colostrum in comparison to later milk secretions?

it contains more immunoglobulins

43

At the beginning of a feeding the baby receives foremilk, towards the end they receive hindmilk which is particularly high in _______

fat

44

When should a mother offer breast #2 to a baby who is suckling breast #1?

When breast #1 is emptied

45

Although the iron content of breastmilk is lower than that of formula, why is the absorption rate higher?

because breastmilk contains lactoferrin

46

This is a VERY important fat in breast milk

DHA

47

Why might DHA synthesis be deficient in newborns?

because they cannot convert alpha linolenic acid to DHA

48

What effect does lactoferrin in breast milk have on bacteria?

it steals their iron!

49

Name 2 growth hormones in milk

epidermal growth factor and IGF-1

50

Why should a woman who is breast-feeding take in adequate calcium?

to protect her own stores since she is losing it in the milk

51

Regarding the embryo when, specifically, is the need for folate the greatest?

the first trimester but particularly around the days of neuropore closure (18-28)

52

Before week 12 the fetus is fed via this______... Bonus super ninja status: what duct connects the infant to this structure?

yolk sac; vitelline duct, that actually wasn't that hard, you're not a ninja.

53

What "cofactors" are needed for uptake of the following: 1) Vitamins A, D, E, K 2) Vitamin A specifically 3) Vitamin D specifically

1) lipoproteins 2) retinol binding protein 3) vitamin D binding protein

54

This is the circulating iron transport protein

transferrin

55

What is true of the maternal absorption rate of iron during pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant state

it increases in pregnancy (gut takes up more iron)

56

Give an example of a vitamin that should not be taken in excess for the infant

vitamin A (phocomelia I think)

57

Which vitamin enhances the uptake of iron?

vitamin C

58

Name 2 things that decrease iron uptake

black tea and whole grains

59

What effect does caffeine have on serum calcium?

decreases it by increasing excretion (prob bc diuretic, so maybe all diuretics do this idk)

60

Why shouldn?t you rely on spinach as a calcium supplement?

it contains oxalic acid (which forms calcium oxalate) and this decreases its uptake

61

Explain in terms of surface area why infants receive more nutrients (i.e. why do infants receive nutrients from the mother more so than mothers receive nutrients from the baby?)

the surface area on the MATERNAL side is 6x greater than that on the fetal side, therefore more is extracted from mom

62

Which fat is especially important to be in the diet of a pregant woman?

DHA

63

This fat in the fetus is particularly important for brain development

DHA

64

Important fat

DHA

65

fat

DHA. You have been conditioned.

66

What effect may caffiene intake >300 mg/d have on the infant

IUGR

67

If a woman is constipated what should you recommend that she eat?

high fiber foods

68

What is particularly important to avoid in HTN mothers (i.e. pre-eclampsia)?

SODIUM

69

What are 3 ways to evaluate fetal growth in a mother

maternal weight gain, fundal height, US