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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (18):
1

Vitamin B1

thiamine: TPP
- important cofactor for those ATP enzymes (alpha ketoglut, transketolase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase)
- deficiency --> impaired glucose breakdown , beriberi (Ber1Ber1) and Wernicke-Korsakov
- diagnose with increased transketolase activity after B1 admin

2

Vitamin B2

riboflavin: FAD, FMN
- used as a cofactor in redox reactions
- deficiency leads to Cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures at corners of mouth), corneal revascularization
- Fad and Fmn come from riboFlavin
- 2 Cs of B2

3

Vitamin B3

Niacin: NAD+
- derived from tryptophan, synthesis requires B2 and B6
- used to treat dyslipidemia be lowering VLDL and raising HDL
- deficiency - pellagra = 3Ds of B3 = diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
- excess --> flushing, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia

4

Vitamin B5

Panthothenic Acid: CoA and fatty acid synthase
- deficiency --> dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency
- B2 is "pento"thenate

5

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine: PLP
- cofactor in transamination, decarboxylation and glycogen phosphorylase
- imp for synthesis of cystathione, heme, niacin, histamine, NTs (serotonin, epi, norepi, dopamine and GABA)
- deficiency - convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemia

6

Vitamin B7

Biotin
- cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
- deficiency rare (dermatitis, alopecia, enteretis), caused by abx or excess raw egg whites

7

Vitamin B9

folate: THF
- important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA, RNA
- deficiency - macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, glossitis, no neuro symptoms
- increased homocysteine, normal methylmalonic acid
- seen in alcoholics and pregnancy

8

Vitamin B12

cobalamin
- deficiency - macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented PMNs, paresthesias
- increased homocysteine AND methylmalonic acid
- usually have a large pool, deficiencies occur with vegans, malabsorption and absence of terminal ileum

9

Vitamin C

ascorbic acid
- facilitates iron absorption (reduces to Fe2+)
- necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis (scurvy)
-Vit C deficiency causes sCurvy because of Collagen synthesis defect
- excess: n/v/d, fatigue, calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

10

Vitamin A

retinol
- important for visual pigments, epithelial cells of specialized tissue (pancreas, mucus-secreting cells), and prevents squamous metaplasia
- treats measles and M3 AML
- deficiency --> night blindness, dry skin, corneal degeneration (keratomalacia), immune suppression
- excess --> arthralgias, alopecia, cerebral edema, pseudotumor cerebri, osteoporosis, teratogenic

11

beriberi

dry - polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting
wet - high output heart failure (dilated cardiomyopathy), edema

12

Wenicke-Korsakoff syndrome

confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia
- also confabulation, personality change and memory loss.
- due to damage to medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, mamillary bodies

13

Scurvy

swollen gums, bruising, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing, "corkscrew hair"

14

Vitamin D

- increased intestinal absorption of Ca and Phos, increased bone mineralization
- deficiency: rickets in kids, osteomalacia in adults, hypocalcemic tetany
- excess: hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor (seen in sarcoidosis)

15

Kwashiorkor

protein deficient MEAL (malnutrition, edema, anemia, liver dysfunction)

16

marasmus

total calorie malnutrition - muscle and tissue wasting, loss of subQ fat, variable edema

17

Vitamin E

- antioxidant protects RBCs and membranes
- deficiency - hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, and similar neuro presentation to B12 def

18

Vitamin K

required for blood clotting, synthesized by intestinal flora
- deficiency leads to neonatal hemhorrage (babies get vit K shot)
- necessary for 1972 protein C and S