Nutrition Flashcards Preview

National Board > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (41):
1

Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

Monosaccharides

2

Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

Disaccharides

3

Starch, Glycogen, Dextrans

Polysaccharides

4

RDA of carbs

130g/day

5

Glucose & Fructose

Sucrose (table sugar)

6

Glucose and Galactose

Lactose (milk sugar)

7

Glucose and Glucose

Maltose (plant sugar)

8

provides food storage, 12-24 hours; liver-regulates blood sugar for brain; muscle-energy for contraction

Glycogen

9

Sorbitol, Mannitol, Xylitol

Nutritive sweeteners - sugar alcohols

10

Saccharin, Aspartame, Acesulfame-K, Sucralose, Neotame

Non-nutritive sweeteners - artificial sweeteners

11

Normal glucose levels in humans

70-125 mg/dl

12

Condition that make a pt 3x more likely to get perio disease and/or other infections

Diabetes Mellitus

13

Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose level drops below ___

70 mg/dl

14

Hypoglycemia symptoms (9)

shaky, dizzy, sweaty, headache, irritable, hungry, lightheaded, palpitations, increase BP

15

1 gram of: Fat; Protein; Carbs; Alcohol
= ___ calories

Fat: 9 kcal
Protein: 4 kcal
Carbs: 4 kcal
Alcohol: 7 kcal

16

inborn error of metabolism by liver; must restrict phenylalanine; avoid aspartame

PKU - phenylketonuria

17

severe protein deficiency; 18-24mos of age, edema, poor growth, delayed eruption & hypoplasia of teeth

Kwashiorkor

18

protein and calorie deficiency; waste away, adaptation to starvation, 6-18mos of age, no edema, poor growth

Marasmus

19

Essential fatty acids (2)

linoleic/omega-3 : vegetable oil
linolenic/omega-6: fish& plant oils (canola,olive)

20

prevents night blindness, maintains mucous membranes; retinols-animal foods; caritinoids-veggies

Vitamin A

21

functions as hormone; calcium and phosphorus absorption, forms and mineralizes teeth; sunlight, milk

Vitamin D

22

in children, softening of bones, bowed legs, enlarged head, joints, rib cage, deformed pelvis

Rickets

23

in adults, calcium taken from bones, bowed legs, bent posture, pain in ribs, pelvis, legs

Osteomalacia

24

aids in blood clotting, increase bone density, green leafy veggies

Vitamin K

25

tocopherol; battles against cancer and heart attacks; antioxidant; vegetable oils, green leaf veggies, whole grains; interferes with Vit K blood coagulation

Vitamin E

26

includes all B & C vitamins, main function is metabolism, deficiencies affects the mouth (cheilosis, glossitis)

Water-soluable vitamins

27

Thiamin, provides energy to brain, heart, and CNS; deficiency-Ber beri; pork, whole grains, milk, legumes, nuts, peas

Vitamin B1

28

Riboflavin, growth and production of RBCs; deficiency-cheilosis, glossitis; milk, nuts, green leafy veggies; sensitive to light - milk should be stored in cardboard/opaque containers.

Vitamin B2

29

Niacin, needed in RNA/DNA synthesis; deficiency-pellegra, 4Ds- dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, death; tryptophan can be converted to niacin

Vitamin B3

30

forms RNA,DNA, & RBCs; deficiencies- Spinal birth defects(spin bifida), anemia, glossitis, diarrhea; green leafy veggies, orange juice, liver

Folate/Folic acid

31

Cyanocobalamin, build tissue, maintains nerves cells, RBC development; deficiency-vegans, pernicious anemia; animal meat, fortified food

Vitamin B12

32

Ascorbic acid, promotes synthesis of collagen; deficiency-scurvy; broccoli, citrus fruits; smokers and birth control require more.

Vitamin C

33

must abundant mineral in the body; bones and teeth, coagulates blood; dairy, broccoli, soy; deficiency-women, rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis

Calcium

34

excess excreted through urine; contributes to high BP, heart conditions, stroke

Sodium

35

helps make amino acids & hormones; beans, nuts, liver; deficiency-anemia, meaty/patchy tongue, oral lesions, fatigue, brittle bones

Iron

36

forms hemoglobin; shellfish, oyster, crab, liver, legumes

Copper

37

regulates BMR, thyroid gland; deficiency-goiter

Iodine

38

wound healing, highest concentration found in bones;deficiency-skin disorders; seafood, tofu, milk, eggs, whole grain bread

Zinc

39

measure of energy ended to maintain life at rest

BMR - basal metabolic rate

40

perimolysis and enlarged parotid glands - manifestation of

Bulimia

41

iron deficiency; craving for non-nutritive substances or abnormal food - soil, paper, coal, raw potato, ice cubes, flour.

Pica