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Flashcards in nutrition Deck (49):
1

vit K fnx

cofactor for y-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II, VII, IX, X, proteins C and S
synthesized by gut flora

2

vit K deficiency

neonatal hemorrhage w/increased PT and aPTT, normal BT
not in breast milk given to neonates

3

zinc fnx

mineral essential for activity of 100+ enzymes

4

zinc deficiency

delayed wound healing
hypogonadism
decreased adult hair
dysgeusia
anosmia
acrodermatitis enteropathica

5

vit A fnx

antioxidant
retinal
normal differentiation of epi -> specialized tissue
prevents squamous metaplasia
Tx measles and AML subtype M3

6

vit A deficiency

night blindness (nyctalopia)
dry, scaley skin
corneal degeneration
bitot spots
immunosuppression

7

acute vit A toxicity

nausea
vomiting
vertigo
blurred vision

8

chronic vit A toxicity

alopecia
dry skin
hepatic toxicity and enlargemnt
arthralgia
psudotumor cerebri

9

vit A teratogen

cleft palate and cardiac abnormalities
cannot Tx acne w/isotretinoin w/o neg prego test

10

Vit B1 fnx

thiamine
thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-cofactor fo dehydrogenase enzyme rxns in TCA cycle and HMP shunt

11

Vit B1 is a cofactor for what enzymes

ATP
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Transketolase
pyruvate dehydrogenase

12

vit B1 deficiency

impaired glucose meta -> ATP depletion worsened by glucose infusion
Wernicke-Korsakoff
Ber1Ber1
increased RBC transketolase actictiy after B1 administration

13

Dry Ber1Ber1

polyneuritis
symmetrical mm wasting

14

wet Ber1Ber1

high-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
edema

15

vit B2 fnx

riboflavin
component of flavins FAD and FMN used in redox rxns

16

vit B2 deficiency

riboflavin
2 C's of B2
Cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures)
Corneal vascularization

17

vit B3 fnx

niacin
NAD and NADP used in redox rxns
used to TX dyslipedmia

18

vit B3 deficiency

niacin
glossitits
pellagra: 3 D's of B3
diarrhea
dementia (and hallucinations)
dermatitis (C3/4 dermatome - broad collar rash and hyperpigmentation of sun-exposed areas)
can be d/t hartnup disease

19

excess vit B3

niacin
facial flushing d/t prostaglandins, not histamine
coadmin aspirn
hyperglycemia
hyperuricemia

20

vit B5 fnx

pantothenic acid
essential component of CoA and fatty synthase

21

vit B5 deficiency

pentothenic acid
dermatitis
enteritis
alopecia
adrenal insufficency

22

vit B6 fnx

pyroxidine
converted to pyrdioxal phospate (PLP)- cofactor for transamination, decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase
needed for synthesis of:
-cystathionine
-heme
-niacin
-histamine
-NTs

23

vit B6 deficeincy

pyroxidine
convulsions
hyperirritability
peripheral neuropathy
sideroblastic anemias
can be d/t isonizid and OCPs

24

vit B7 fnx

biotin
cofactor for carboxylation enzymes

25

vit B7 deficiency

biotin
rare
dermatitis
alopecia
enteritis
can be d/t abx or excessive ingestion of raw egg whites

26

vitB9 fnx

folate
converted to THF needed for pyrimadine synthesis
small reserve in liver

27

vitB9deficiency

folate
macrolytic, megaloblastic anemia
hypersegmented neutros
glosstits
no neuro symptoms
usually in alcoholics and prego
supplement in prego to prevent neural tube defects

28

vitB9 deficiency labs

increased homocysteine
normal methylmalonic acid levels
increased MCV

29

drugs that cause vit B9 deficiency

phenytoin
sulfonamides
methotrexate

30

vit 12 fnx

cobalamin
cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase
synthesized by microorganisms so only in animal products

31

vit B12 deficiency

cobalamin
macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia
hypersegmented neutros
neuro symptoms

32

neuro path of vit B12 deficiency

cobalamin
abnormal myelin -> degeneration of DCMS, LCST, spinocerebellar tracts

33

vit B12 deficiency labs

cobalamin
increased homocysteine AND methylmalonic acid
increased MCV

34

causes vit B12 deficiency

cobalamin
veganism
malabsorption (sprue, enteriits, diphyllobothrium latum)
lack of IF (pernicious anemia)
absence of terminal ileum (Chrons)

35

vit C fnx

ascorbic acid
antioxidant
Fe absorption (reduces to Fe2+)
hyroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen
dopamine -> NE

36

vit C deficiency

ascorbic acid
scurvy
swollen gums, bruising, petechiae, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing
perifollicular and subperiosteal hemorrhages
corkscrew hari
weakened immune response

37

excess vit C

ascorbic acid
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, Ca oxalate nephrolithiasis
increased Fe toxicity in predisposed (transfusion, hemochromatosis)

38

vit D types

D2 ergocalciferol (from plants)
D3 cholecalciferol (milk and sun exposure)
25-OH D3 (storage form)
1,25 (OH)2 D3/calcitriol (active form)

39

vit D fnxs

increased GI absorption of Ca and phosphate
increase bone mineralization

40

vit D deficiency

rickets in kids, osteomalacia in adults
hypocalcemic tetany
breast fed infants need supplementation

41

vit D excess

hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria
loss of appetite
stupor
seen in granulomatous diseases d/t increased activation of vitD by epithelioid macros

42

vit E fnx

tocopherol/tocotrienol
antioxidant (protects RBCs and membranes)
can enhance anticoagulant effects of warfarin

43

vit E deficiency

hemolytic anemia
acanthrocytosis
mm weakness
posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demylination

44

vit E vs vit B12 deficiency

presents w/similar neuro symptoms
but vitE deficiency does NOT have megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils, or increased serum methylmalonic acid levels

45

kwashikors

protein malnutrition
skin lesions
edema
fatty liver
MEAL:
malnutrition
edema
anemia
liver fatty

46

marsamus

total calorie malnutrition
tissue and mm wasting
loss of subQ fat and variable edema

47

ethanol meta

zero order kinetics
NAD limiting reagent
d/t increased NADH/NAD ratio:
-lactic acidosis
-fasting hypoglycemia
-hepatosteatosis
-ketoacidosis
-lipogenesis

48

fomepizole

inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase and antidote for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoing

49

disulfuram

inhibits acetaldehyde dehyrdogenase -> very sick