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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (68):
1

Kwashiorkor Category: Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: CHOs greater than amount of protein, somatic protein unchanged, visceral protein degraded

Deficiency Sxs: XXXXX

Complications: XXXXX

Deficiency Sxs:

  • Pitting edema
  • ascites
  • massive hepatomegaly
  • diarrhea 
  • anemia
  • "flaky paint" skin

Complications: T cells compromised (parasitic infections), growth retardation

2

Kwashiorkor

Category: XXXXX

Pathogenesis: XXXXX

Deficiency Sxs: Pitting edema, ascites, massive hepatomegaly, diarrhea, anemia, "flaky paint" skin

Complications: T cells compromised (parasitic infections), growth retardation

Category: Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: CHOs greater than amount of protein, somatic protein unchanged, visceral protein degraded

3

XXXXX

Category: Protein Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: CHOs greater than amount of protein, somatic protein unchanged, visceral protein degraded

Deficiency Sxs: Pitting edema, ascites, massive hepatomegaly, diarrhea, anemia, "flaky paint" skin

Complications: T cells compromised (parasitic infections), growth retardation

Kwashiorkor

4

XXXXX

Category: Protein Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: Total caloric deprivation (CHOs and protein), somatic (muscle) protein loss

Deficiency Sxs: Extreme muscle wasting, loss of fat, growth retardation, anemia

Complications: T cell immunity defect

Marasmus

5

Marasmus

Category: XXXXX

Pathogenesis: XXXXX

Deficiency Sxs: Extreme muscle wasting, loss of fat, growth retardation, anemia

Complications: T cell immunity defect

Category: Protein Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: Total caloric deprivation (CHOs and protein), somatic (muscle) protein loss

6

Marasmus

Category: Protein Energy Malnutrition

Pathogenesis: Total caloric deprivation (CHOs and protein), somatic (muscle) protein loss

Deficiency Sxs: XXXXX

Complications: XXXXX

Deficiency Sxs: Extreme muscle wasting, loss of fat, growth retardation, anemia

Complications: T cell immunity defect

7

XXXXX

Epi: Female 9:1, common in younger women

Pathogenesis: intense fear of weight gain, perceive self as fat even when emaciated

Sxs:

  • Secondary amenorrhea
  • Decreased gonadotropins/estradiol (Osteoporosis)
  • Dry skin
  • Facial hair 
  • Euthyroid Sick Syndrome (Hypothyroidism)
  • Hypokalemia (Vtach)​

​​Trt: SSRIs

Anorexia Nervosa

8

Anorexia Nervosa

Epi: XXXX

Pathogenesis: XXXXX

Sxs:

Secondary amenorrhea

Decreased gonadotropins/estradiol (Osteoporosis)

Dry skin

Facial hair 

Euthyroid Sick Syndrome (Hypothyroidism)

Hypokalemia (Vtach)

Trt: SSRIs

Epi: Female 9:1, common in younger women

Pathogenesis: intense fear of weight gain, perceive self as fat even when emaciated

9

Anorexia Nervosa

Epi: Female 9:1, common in younger women

Pathogenesis: intense fear of weight gain, perceive self as fat even when emaciated

Sxs: XXXXX

Trt: XXXXX

Sxs:

Secondary amenorrhea

Decreased gonadotropins/estradiol (Osteoporosis)

Dry skin

Facial hair 

Euthyroid Sick Syndrome (Hypothyroidism)

Hypokalemia (Vtach)

Trt: SSRIs

10

XXXXX

Definition: bingeing with self-induced vomiting

Epi: 10:1 female, young age (more common than anorexia nervosa)

Pathogenesis: Multifactorial

Sxs:

Eroded enamel

Hypokalemia

Metabolic acidosis

Partolid/salivary gland swelling

Hematemesis due to esophageal injury

Hypokalemia (Vtach)

No emaciation

Trt: SSRIs

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bullimia Nervosa

11

Bulimia Nervosa

Definition: XXXXX

Epi: XXXXX

Pathogenesis: XXXXX

Sxs:

Eroded enamel

Hypokalemia

Metabolic acidosis

Partolid/salivary gland swelling

Hematemesis due to esophageal injury

Hypokalemia (Vtach)

No emaciation

Trt: SSRIs

 

 

 

 

 

Definition: bingeing with self-induced vomiting

Epi: 10:1 female, young age (more common than anorexia nervosa)

Pathogenesis: Multifactorial

12

Bulimia Nervosa

Definition: bingeing with self-induced vomiting

Epi: 10:1 female, young age (more common than anorexia nervosa)

Pathogenesis: Multifactorial

Sxs: XXXXX

Trt: XXXXX

 

 

 

 

Sxs:

Eroded enamel

Hypokalemia

Metabolic acidosis

Partolid/salivary gland swelling

Hematemesis due to esophageal injury

Hypokalemia (Vtach)

No emaciation

Trt: SSRIs

 

 

 

 

13

XXXXX

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Eye function

Cause of imbalance:

  • Deficiency: low vegetable diet, fat absorption dx (Celiac) 
  • Excess: consumption of liver of arctic animals (Eskimos)

Sxs:

  • Deficiency:
    • Impaired night vision
    • Keratin debris
    • Growth retardation in children
  • Excess:​
    • Papilledema
    • Blurry vision
    • Seizures
    • Hepatitis
    • Bone pain
    • Increased bone resorption/fracture risk

Vitamin A/Retinol

14

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Impaired night vision

Keratin debris

Growth retardation in children

Excess:

Papilledema

Blurry vision

Seizures

Hepatitis

Bone pain

Increased bone resorption/fracture risk

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Eye function

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: low vegetable diet, fat absorption dx (Celiac) 

Excess: consumption of liver of arctic animals (Eskimos)

15

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Eye function

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: low vegetable diet, fat absorption dx (Celiac) 

Excess: consumption of liver of arctic animals (Eskimos)

Sxs:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

 

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Impaired night vision

Keratin debris

Growth retardation in children

Excess:

Papilledema

Blurry vision

Seizures

Hepatitis

Bone pain

Increased bone resorption/fracture risk

16

XXXXX

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Converted to 25-OH [D], then 1,25 (OH)2 [D], leads to calcium and phosphorus reabsorption, bone mineralization, immune cell differntiation

Source of Imbalance:

  • Deficiency: Renal failure, lack of sunlight, liver dx, infants w/o supplementation (not in breast milk)
  • Excess: Megadoses

Sxs:

  • Deficiency:
    • Fractures
    • Tetany
    • Children: Rickets
  • Excess:
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Bone pain

Vitamin D

17

Vitamin D

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of Imbalance:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Fractures

Tetany

Children: Rickets

Excess:

Hypercalcemia

Bone pain

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Converted to 25-OH [D], then 1,25 (OH)2 [D], leads to calcium and phosphorus reabsorption, bone mineralization, immune cell differntiation

Source of Imbalance:

Deficiency: Renal failure, lack of sunlight, liver dx, infants w/o supplementation (not in breast milk)

Excess: Megadoses

18

Vitamin D

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Converted to 25-OH [D], then 1,25 (OH)2 [D], leads to calcium and phosphorus reabsorption, bone mineralization, immune cell differntiation

Source of Imbalance:

Deficiency: Renal failure, lack of sunlight, liver dx, infants w/o supplementation (not in breast milk)

Excess: Megadoses

Sxs:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Fractures

Tetany

Children: Rickets

Excess:

Hypercalcemia

Bone pain

19

XXXXX

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Antioxidant, protects oxidation of LDLs

Source of imbalance:

  • Deficiency: Fat malabsorption, poor diet
  • Excess: Megadoses

Sxs:

  • Deficiency:
    • Hemolytic anemia
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Neonates: thrombocytosis
  • Excess:
    • Synergistic effect with warfarin (bleeding)
    • Increased PT

Vitamin E

20

Vitamin E

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Hemolytic anemia

Peripheral neuropathy

Neonates: thrombocytosis

Excess:

Synergistic effect with warfarin (bleeding)

Increased PT

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Antioxidant, protects oxidation of LDLs

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: Fat malabsorption, poor diet

Excess: Megadoses

21

Vitamin E

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Antioxidant, protects oxidation of LDLs

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: Fat malabsorption, poor diet

Excess: Megadoses

Sxs:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Deficiency:

Hemolytic anemia

Peripheral neuropathy

Neonates: thrombocytosis

Excess:

Synergistic effect with warfarin (bleeding)

Increased PT

22

XXXXX

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for Protein C/S, factors II, VII, IX, and X synthesis in liver

Source of imbalance:

  • Deficiency: Abx (destroys nl colon flora), newborns with injections, coumadin, cirrhosis, fat malabsorption
  • Excess: rare, megadoses

Sxs:

  • Deficiency:
    • Newborns: hemorrhagic dx
    • GI bleeding
    • Ecchymoses in skin
    • PT/PTT prlonged
  • Excess:
    • Pregnant woman takes too much: hemolytic anemia, jaundice, kernicterus in newborn

Vitamin K

23

Vitamin K

Category: XXXXX

Nl function: XXXXX

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Newborns: hemorrhagic dx

GI bleeding

Ecchymoses in skin

PT/PTT prlonged

Excess:

Pregnant woman takes too much: hemolytic anemia, jaundice, kernicterus in newborn

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for Protein C/S, factors II, VII, IX, and X synthesis in liver

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: Abx (destroys nl colon flora), newborns with injections, coumadin, cirrhosis, fat malabsorption

Excess: rare, megadoses

24

Vitamin K

Category: Fat soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for Protein C/S, factors II, VII, IX, and X synthesis in liver

Source of imbalance:

Deficiency: Abx (destroys nl colon flora), newborns with injections, coumadin, cirrhosis, fat malabsorption

Excess: rare, megadoses

Sxs:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency:

Newborns: hemorrhagic dx

GI bleeding

Ecchymoses in skin

PT/PTT prlonged

Excess:

Pregnant woman takes too much: hemolytic anemia, jaundice, kernicterus in newborn

25

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in ATP producing rxns (pyruvate dehydorgenase), cofactor in Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, diet of unenriched rice

Sxs:

  • Dye beriberi: peripheral neuropathy
  • Wernicke syndrome: ataxia, confusion, nystagmus (random eye movements), hemorrhages
  • Korsakoff syndrome: amnesia, demyelination
  • Wet beriberi: cardiomyopathy with HF, pitting edema (Trt with B1 supplements)

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

26

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Cause of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Dye beriberi: peripheral neuropathy

Wernicke syndrome: ataxia, confusion, nystagmus (random eye movements), hemorrhages

Korsakoff syndrome: amnesia, demyelination

Wet beriberi: cardiomyopathy with HF, pitting edema (Trt with B1 supplements)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in ATP producing rxns (pyruvate dehydorgenase), cofactor in Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, diet of unenriched rice

27

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in ATP producing rxns (pyruvate dehydorgenase), cofactor in Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, diet of unenriched rice

Sxs: XXXXX

Sxs:

Dye beriberi: peripheral neuropathy

Wernicke syndrome: ataxia, confusion, nystagmus (random eye movements), hemorrhages

Korsakoff syndrome: amnesia, demyelination

Wet beriberi: cardiomyopathy with HF, pitting edema (Trt with B1 supplements)

28

XXXXX

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Succinate dehydrogenase cofactor in TCA

Source of deficiency: severe malnourishment

Sxs:

  • Corneal neovascularization
  • Glossitis (magenta tongue)
  • Cheilosis (cracked lips)
  • Stomatitis (fissuring at mouth angles)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

29

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Corneal neovascularization

Glossitis (magenta tongue)

Cheilosis (cracked lips)

Stomatitis (fissuring at mouth angles)

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Succinate dehydrogenase cofactor in TCA

Source of deficiency: severe malnourishment

30

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Succinate dehydrogenase cofactor in TCA

Source of deficiency: severe malnourishment

Sxs: XXXXX

Sxs:

Corneal neovascularization

Glossitis (magenta tongue)

Cheilosis (cracked lips)

Stomatitis (fissuring at mouth angles)

31

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Source of NAD+ and NADP+

Cause of imbalance:

  • Deficiency: corn-based diet
  • Excess: medication for lipid control

Sxs:

  • Deficiency: (pellagra)
    • Diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
  • Excess:
    • Flushing rxn
    • Cholestasis (jaundice)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

32

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

Sxs:

Deficiency: (pellagra)

Diarrhea

Dermatitis

Dementia

Excess:

Flushing rxn

Cholestasis (jaundice)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Source of NAD+ and NADP+

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: corn-based diet

Excess: medication for lipid control

33

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Source of NAD+ and NADP+

Cause of imbalance:

Deficiency: corn-based diet

Excess: medication for lipid control

Sxs:

Deficiency: XXXXX

Excess: XXXXX

xs:

Deficiency: (pellagra)

Diarrhea

Dermatitis

Dementia

Excess:

Flushing rxn

Cholestasis (jaundice)

34

XXXXX

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Component of Coenzyme A, fatty acid synthase

Sxs of Deficiency:

  • Dermatitis
  • Enteritis
  • Alopecia
  • Adrenal insufficiency

 

 

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

35

36

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Sxs of Deficiency: XXXXX

 

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Component of Coenzyme A, fatty acid synthase

Sxs of Deficiency:

Dermatitis

Enteritis

Alopecia

Adrenal insufficiency

37

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Transamination, Heme Synthesis, NT synthesis

Source of deficiency: Isoniazid trt, goat milk only, EtOH

Sxs:

  • Sideroblastic anemia (microcytic w/ ringed sideroblasts)
  • Convulsions
  • Peripheral neuropathy 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

38

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Sideroblastic anemia (microcytic w/ ringed sideroblasts)

Convulsions

Peripheral neuropathy 

Catagory: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Transamination, Heme Synthesis, NT synthesis

Source of deficiency: Isoniazid trt, goat milk only, EtOH

39

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Transamination, Heme Synthesis, NT synthesis

Source of deficiency: Isoniazid trt, goat milk only, EtOH

Sxs: XXXXX

Sxs:

Sideroblastic anemia (microcytic w/ ringed sideroblasts)

Convulsions

Peripheral neuropathy 

40

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in carobxylase rxns (OAA to pyruvate, fatty acid chain metabolism)

Source of deficiency: eating raw eggs (a fuck ton), abx

Sxs: 

  • Dermatitis
  • Alopecia
  • Lactic acidosis (due to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate with conversion to OAA blocked)

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

41

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs: 

Dermatitis

Alopecia

Lactic acidosis (due to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate with conversion to OAA blocked)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in carobxylase rxns (OAA to pyruvate, fatty acid chain metabolism)

Source of deficiency: eating raw eggs (a fuck ton), abx

42

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Cofactor in carobxylase rxns (OAA to pyruvate, fatty acid chain metabolism)

Source of deficiency: eating raw eggs (a fuck ton), abx

Sxs: XXXXX

Dermatitis

Alopecia

Lactic acidosis (due to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate with conversion to OAA blocked)

43

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: DNA/RNA synthesis

Source of deficiency: Folic Acid Abx, poor diet, infants w/o supplementation, EtOH, pregnancy

Sxs:

  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Hypersegmented neutrophils
  • Pancytopenia
  • Glossitis
  • Newborns: increased risk of neural tube defects 

Labs:

  • Incresed homocysteine
  • Normal methylmalonic acid

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

44

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Source of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Megaloblastic anemia

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Pancytopenia

Glossitis

Newborns: increased risk of neural tube defects 

Labs:

Incresed homocysteine

Normal methylmalonic acid

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: DNA/RNA synthesis

Source of deficiency: Folic Acid Abx, poor diet, infants w/o supplementation, EtOH, pregnancy

45

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: DNA/RNA synthesis

Source of deficiency: Folic Acid Abx, poor diet, infants w/o supplementation, EtOH, pregnancy

Sxs: XXXXX

Labs: XXXXX

Sxs:

Megaloblastic anemia

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Pancytopenia

Glossitis

Newborns: increased risk of neural tube defects 

Labs:

Incresed homocysteine

Normal methylmalonic acid

46

XXXXX

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for methionine synthase, needed for DNA Synthesis

Source of Deficiency: absorbed in stomach/upper intestine, malabsorption, lack of IF, colon resection, poor diet (veganism), anti-IF Ig for pernicious anemia

Sxs:

  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Hypersegmented neutrophils
  • Pancytopenia
  • Neurologic disorders due to lack of myelin sheath

Labs:

  • Elevated homocysteine
  • Elevated methylmalonic acid

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

47

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Category: XXXXX

Nl function: XXXXX

Source of Deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Megaloblastic Anemia

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Pancytopenia

Neurologic disorders due to lack of myelin sheath

Labs:

Elevated homocysteine

Elevated methylmalonic acid

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for methionine synthase, needed for DNA Synthesis

Source of Deficiency: absorbed in stomach/upper intestine, malabsorption, lack of IF, colon resection, poor diet (veganism), anti-IF Ig for pernicious anemia

48

XXXXX

Category: water soluble vitamin

Nl function: Cofactor for methionine synthase, needed for DNA Synthesis

Source of Deficiency: absorbed in stomach/upper intestine, malabsorption, lack of IF, colon resection, poor diet (veganism), anti-IF Ig for pernicious anemia

Sxs: XXXXX

Labs: XXXXX

Sxs:

Megaloblastic Anemia

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Pancytopenia

Neurologic disorders due to lack of myelin sheath

Labs:

Elevated homocysteine

Elevated methylmalonic acid

49

XXXXX

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Collagen synthesis (cross-linking), antioxidant

Cause of deficiency: Poor diet, tobacco use

Sxs: "scurvy" 

  •  Vessel rupture (skin hemorrhages)
  • Perifollicular skin hemorrrhages
  • Hemarthrosis
  • Bleeding gums
  • Anemia
  • Poor wound healing
  • Bone/joint pains
  • Corkscrew hairs

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

50

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Category: XXXXX

Nl Function: XXXXX

Cause of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs: "scurvy" 

 Vessel rupture (skin hemorrhages)

Perifollicular skin hemorrrhages

Hemarthrosis

Bleeding gums

Anemia

Poor wound healing

Bone/joint pains

Corkscrew hairs

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Collagen synthesis (cross-linking), antioxidant

Cause of deficiency: Poor diet, tobacco use

51

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Category: Water soluble vitamin

Nl Function: Collagen synthesis (cross-linking), antioxidant

Cause of deficiency: Poor diet, tobacco use

Sxs: XXXXX

Sxs: "scurvy" 

 Vessel rupture (skin hemorrhages)

Perifollicular skin hemorrrhages

Hemarthrosis

Bleeding gums

Anemia

Poor wound healing

Bone/joint pains

Corkscrew hairs

52

XXXX

Function: collagenase cofactor, growth/spermatogenesis

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, DM, chronic diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica (Auto Rec dx)

Sxs: 

  • Poor wound healing
  • Poor taste (dysgeusia)
  • Anosmia
  • Perioral rash
  • Children: growth retardation, hypogonadism

Zinc

53

Zinc

Function: XXXXX

Cause of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs: 

Poor wound healing

Poor taste (dysgeusia)

Anosmia

Perioral rash

Children: growth retardation, hypogonadism

Function: collagenase cofactor, growth/spermatogenesis

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, DM, chronic diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica (Auto Rec dx)

54

Zinc

Function: collagenase cofactor, growth/spermatogenesis

Cause of deficiency: EtOH, DM, chronic diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica (Auto Rec dx)

Sxs: XXXXX

Sxs: 

Poor wound healing

Poor taste (dysgeusia)

Anosmia

Perioral rash

Children: growth retardation, hypogonadism

55

XXXXX

Function: ferroxidase cofactor, lysyl oxidase (collagen cross-linking), tyrosinase (melanin synthesis) 

Source of deficiency: TPN

Sxs:

  • Microcytic anemia
  • Aortic dissection (weak connective tissue)
  • Poor wound healing

Copper

56

Copper

Function: XXXXX

Source of deficiency: XXXXX

Sxs:

Microcytic anemia

Aortic dissection (weak connective tissue)

Poor wound healing

Function: ferroxidase cofactor, lysyl oxidase (collagen cross-linking), tyrosinase (melanin synthesis) 

Source of deficiency: TPN

57

Copper

Function: ferroxidase cofactor, lysyl oxidase (collagen cross-linking), tyrosinase (melanin synthesis) 

Source of deficiency: TPN

Sxs: XXXXX

Microcytic anemia

Aortic dissection

Poor wound healing

58

59

Sxs:

Hepatitis/Cirrhosis

Kayser-Fleisher ring in cornea

Basal ganglia degradation (chorea, PD like sxs, dementia)

Wilson Dx (Copper Excess)

Auto Rec Dx

Defect in eliminating copper in bile

60

Sxs:

Thyroid enlargement/goiter

Iodine deficiency

61

Function: glucose blood levels

Deficiency: TPN

Sxs: 

  • Hyperglycemia
  • Peripheral neuropathy

Chromium

62

Function: glutathione peroxidase component (H2O2 breakdown)

Deficiency: TPN 

Sxs:

  • Muscle pain
  • Cardiomyopathy

Selenium

63

Function: Component of hydroxyapatite in bone/teeth

Deficiency: decrease intake of water with electrolytes

Sxs: Dental caries (cavities) 

Fluoride

64

Deficiency: tetany (spasms in palm, Chvostek sign), osteoporosis

Excess: kidney stones, deposition in tissues, polyuria 

Calcium

65

Deficiency: muscle weakness, rhabdomyolysis, hemolytic anemia (due to decreased ATP)

Excess: Hypocalemia 

Phosphorus

66

Deficiency: altered mental status, convulsions

Excess: mental statis issues, convulsions, edema

Sodium

67

Deficiency: muscle weakness, polyuria

Excess: ventricular arrhythmias

Potassium

68

Deficiency: tetany, hypocalcemia, tachycardia

Excess: depressed reflexes, bradycardia 

Magnesium