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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (85):
1

Nutrients that supply energy

Carbohydrates
Protein
Lipids

2

Nutrients that regulate body processes

Vitamins
Minerals
Water

3

Rule of thumb for determining ideal body weight for women

100lb for height of 5ft is 5lbs for each additional inch over 5 feet

4

Rule of thumb for determining ideal body weight for men

106lbs for 5ft plus 6lb for each additional inch over 5ft

5

Sugars and starches.
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Serve as structural framework of plants, lactose is only animal source.
Most abundant and least expensive source of calories in the world.
Classified as simple or complex sugars

Carbs

6

Converted to glucose for transport through the blood.
Cells oxidize glucose to provide energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
50-100g of carbs are needed to prevent ketosis.

Carbs

7

Required for the for the formation of all body structures.
Labeled complete or incomplete (high or low quality) based on amino acid composition
Animal proteins are complete, plant proteins are incomplete.

Protein

8

Protein for adults

0.8 g/kg of body weight. 10-35% total calorie intake

9

Red meat is an incomplete protein

False

10

Insoluble in water and blood.
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
95% of lipids in diet are triglycerides.
Contain mixtures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

Fats

11

Raise cholesterol levels

Saturated

12

Lower cholesterol levels

Unsaturated

13

Most animal fats are saturated

True

14

Most vegetable fats are unsaturated

True

15

Where does digestion largely occur ?

Small intestine

16

Fat content in daily diet?

No more than 20-35% total calorie intake

17

What is the name for be product that occurs when manufacturers partially hydrogenated liquid oils?

Trans fat

18

Predominant form of fat in food and the major storage form of fat in the body

Triglycerides

19

A fat like substance found only in animal products

Cholesterol

20

Organic compounds needed by the body in small amounts.
Most are active in form of coenzymes.
Needed for metabolism of carbs, protein, and fat.
Classified as water soluble or fat soluble.
Absorbed through the intestinal wall directly into bloodstream

Vitamins

21

Vitamin affects visual acuity in dim light, formation and maintenance of skin and mucous membranes, and the immune function

Vitamin A

22

Provides calcium and phosphorus metabolism and stimulates calcium absorption

Vitamin D

23

An antioxidant that protects vitamin A

Vitamin E

24

Helps the synthesis of certain proteins necessary for clotting

Vitamin K

25

Organic elements found in all body fluids and tissues.
Some function to provide structure in the body, others help regulate body processes.
Contained in the ash that remains after digestion.

Minerals

26

Include calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium

Macrominerals

27

Include iron, zinc, manganese, and iodine

Micro minerals

28

Account for between 50-60% of adults total weight

Water

29

2/3 of body water is contained within cells (intracellular fluid (ICF)
Remainder of body are is extracellular fluid ( ECF), body fluids (plasma, interstitial fluid)
Provides fluid medium necessary for all chemical reactions in the body.
Act as a solvent and aids digestion, absorption, circulation, and excretion

Water

30

Food is more vital to life than water because it provides the medium necessary for all chemical reactions and it is not stored in the body

False

31

Obesity

BMI > 30

32

Measurements of the body and body parts

Anthropometric

33

Misdirection of oropharyngeal secretions or gastric contents into the larynx and lower respiratory tract

Aspiration

34

Amount of energy required to carry out involuntary activities of the body at rest

Basal metabolism

35

Ratio of height to weight

BMI, body mass index

36

Measure of heat or energy

Calorie

37

Fat like substance found only in animal tissues. It is important for cell membrane structure, a precursor of steroid hormones, and a constituent of bile; high serum cholesterol levels are a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis

Cholesterol

38

Gastrointestinal systems breakdown process of food into particles small enough to pass into the cells and be use by the cells

Digestion

39

Difficult in swallowing or inability to swallow

Dysphagia

40

Alternate form of feeding that involves passing a tube into the gastrointestinal tract to allow instillation of the appropriate formula

Enteral nutrition

41

Feeding remaining in the stomach

Residual

42

Opening created into the stomach

Gastrostomy

43

An abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies that is frequently associate with acidosis

Ketosis

44

In organic elements found in nature

Minerals

45

Tube inserted through the nose and into the stomach

Nasogastric (NG) tube

46

Tube inserted through the nose and into the upper potion of the small intestine

Nasointestinal (NI) tube

47

Nothing by mouth

NPO

48

Specific biochemical substance used by the body for growth, development, activity, reproduction, lactation, health maintenance, and recovery from illness or injury

Nutrient

49

Weight greater that 20% above ideal body weight

Obesity

50

Nourishment provide via IV therapy

Parenteral nutrition

51

Surgically or laparoscopically placed gastro tube

Percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube (peg)

52

Prescribed for patients who require nutrient supplementation through a peripheral vein because they have an inadequate intake of oral feedings

Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)

53

Vital compliment of every living cell; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

Protein

54

Partially hydrogenated liquid oil; trans fat raises serum cholesterol

Trans fat

55

Predominant form of fat in food and the major storage form of fat in the body

Triglycerides

56

Normal BMI?

18.5-24.9

57

1lb of body fat equals how many cals?

3500

58

Simple sugars and starch.
Grains, fried peas and beans, sugars.
Provide energy

Carbs

59

Adequate intake of fiber for women? Men?

25g women
38g men

60

Water Soluble fibers?

Oat bran, oatmeal, dried peas and beans, prunes, pears.

61

Milk products, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts

Protein

62

Water soluble vitamins?

C, B, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folatec, B12, B6, pantothenic acid, biotin

63

Fat soluble vitamins?

Vitamin A, E, K, D

64

Vitamin C sources? Functions?

Citrus fruits, broccoli, green pepper, strawberries, greens

Collagen formation, enhances iron absorption

65

Thiamin complex sources? Functions?

Pork, liver, whole grain, legumes

Key reactions that produce energy from glucose

66

Riboflavin sources? Functions?

Milk, organ meats, greens

Carbs, protein, and fats

67

Niacin sources? Functions?

Kidney, grains, lean meat, nuts

Carbs, protein, and fat

68

Vitamin B6 sources? Functions?

Yeast, bananas, cantaloupe, broccoli, spinach

69

Folate sources? Function?

Green leafy vegetable, liver

Formation and maturation of RBC

70

B12 sources? Functions?

Animal products, organ meats, seafoods

Protein metabolism and formation of hemoglobin

71

Biotin sources? Function?

Liver, egg yolk

72

Vitamin A sources? Function?

Liver, carrots, egg yolk, fortified milk

Visual acuity in dim light, formation and main fence of mucous membranes, immune function

73

Vitamin D sources? Functions?

Sunlight, fish liver oils

Calcium and phosphorus metabolism, stimulates calcium absorption

74

Vitamin E sources? Functions?

Vegetables oils, whole grain

Protects vitamin A

75

Vitamin K sources? Function?

Dark leafy vegetables


Synthesis certain proteins for blood clotting

76

Calcium sources? Functions?

Milk and dairy, canned fish, greens

None and tooth formation, blood clotting

77

Phosphorus sources? Vitamins?

Milk and milk products, soft drinks, process foods

Bone and tooth formation, energy metabolism

78

Magnesium source? functions?

Green leafy vegetables, nuts, beans, grains

None and tooth formation

79

Sodium source? Function?

Salt, processed foods

Extracellular food, fluid balance

80

Potassium sources? Function?

Whole grain, fruits, leafy vegetables

Intracellular fluid, fluid balance

81

Chloride source? Functions?

Salt

82

Iron source? Function?

Liver, meats, breads and cereals

Oxygen transport by blood

83

Iodine sources? Functions?

Iodized salt, seafood, food additives

Component of thyroid hormones

84

Zinc sources? Functions?

Oysters, liver, meats

Tissue growth, sexual maturation, immune response

85

Fluoride sources? Functions?

Water, tea, fish

Tooth formation, bone formation,