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Year 1 Body Systems > Nutrition and artificial feeding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition and artificial feeding Deck (80)
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1

What is EAR in terms of nutrition?

Estimated average requirement, (of nutrients) half the population usually needs more, half needs less

2

What is LRNI in terms of nutrition?

Lower reference nutrient intake
Sufficient for people with low requirements but 97.5% of the population need more

3

What is RNI in terms of nutrition?

Reference nutrient intake
Sufficient for about 97.5% of the population

4

What are the main source of energy in the body and what percentage of our energy do they supply?

Fat stores 80-90%

5

Can protein be stored? What happens in starvation?

No protein can't be stored
In starvation muscle tissue is broken down to provide energy

6

How much protein does an average adult (and a 75kg man) require a day?

0.75g/kg/day
In a 75kg man thats about 50g per day

7

What should the nitrogen balance be in a healthy adult?

0
As nitrogen intake = nitrogen excretion

8

What is meant by a negative nitrogen balance and when may this occur?

Intake is less than excretion
Occurs during times of fasting or illness as the body is breaking down proteins for energy

9

What is meant by a positive nitrogen balance and when may this occur?

Intake is greater than excretion
occurs during periods of growth, pregnancy as the body is building new tissue

10

What are the nine essential amino acids (many very happy little pigs take iced lemon tea)?

Methionine
Histadine
Valine
Leucine
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Lysine
Threonine

11

What 4 amino acids are lacking in plant proteins?

Methionine, Cysteine, Lysine, Tryptophan

12

1g of fat provides how many kcal compared to carbohydrate and protein?

1g fat = 9kcal
1g carbohydrate and protein = 4kcal

13

What are the 4 types of fat, what are there characteristics and where are they found?

Saturated - no double bonds - meat and dairy
Mono-unsaturated - 1 double bond - olive and peanut oil
Poly-unsaturated - more than 1 double bond - corn and sunflower oil
Trans (hydrogenated) - trans double bonds - cakes, biscuits, pastries

14

Has dietary fat improved or not over the last 10 years?

Improved

15

What percentage of your diet should could from fats and what percentage of this should be made up of saturated /unsaturated/trans fats?

less than 35% ideally 30%
10% saturated
18% unsaturated
less than 2% trans

16

What are the 2 essential fatty acids?

Omega 3 and 6

17

What are the 4 types of carbohydrate?

1) Polysaccharides - mainly starch
2) Disaccharides - mainly sucrose
3) Monosaccharide's - mainly glucose and fructose
4) Non-starch polysaccharide - dietary fibre

18

What is the recommended intake of total carbohydrate and where should most of that come from?

50% - intrinsic and milk sugars and starch

19

What is NMEs (non-milk extrinsic sugars)?

Added sugar

20

What food stuff contributes the most to NMEs intake in the UK?

Sweetened soft drinks

21

'Organic compound required for normal metabollic function which cannot be synthesised in the body- deficiency results in disease' is the definition of what?

Vitamin

22

'Inorganic molecules which have a physiological function' is the definition of what?

Minerals

23

The majority of vitamins are converted into molecules which act as co enzymes other than which 3 vitamins?

A, D, E

24

Which vitamin is coblamin?

B12

25

Which vitamin is folic acid?

B9

26

Which vitamin is Pyridoxal phsophate?

B6

27

Which vitamin in pantothenic acid?

B5

28

Which vitamin is niacin?

B3

29

Which vitamin is riboflavin?

B2

30

Which vitamin is Thiamin?

B1