Flashcards in Nutrition and artificial feeding Deck (80)
What is EAR in terms of nutrition?
Estimated average requirement, (of nutrients) half the population usually needs more, half needs less
What is LRNI in terms of nutrition?
Lower reference nutrient intake
Sufficient for people with low requirements but 97.5% of the population need more
What is RNI in terms of nutrition?
Reference nutrient intake
Sufficient for about 97.5% of the population
What are the main source of energy in the body and what percentage of our energy do they supply?
Fat stores 80-90%
Can protein be stored? What happens in starvation?
No protein can't be stored
In starvation muscle tissue is broken down to provide energy
How much protein does an average adult (and a 75kg man) require a day?
In a 75kg man thats about 50g per day
What should the nitrogen balance be in a healthy adult?
As nitrogen intake = nitrogen excretion
What is meant by a negative nitrogen balance and when may this occur?
Intake is less than excretion
Occurs during times of fasting or illness as the body is breaking down proteins for energy
What is meant by a positive nitrogen balance and when may this occur?
Intake is greater than excretion
occurs during periods of growth, pregnancy as the body is building new tissue
What are the nine essential amino acids (many very happy little pigs take iced lemon tea)?
What 4 amino acids are lacking in plant proteins?
Methionine, Cysteine, Lysine, Tryptophan
1g of fat provides how many kcal compared to carbohydrate and protein?
1g fat = 9kcal
1g carbohydrate and protein = 4kcal
What are the 4 types of fat, what are there characteristics and where are they found?
Saturated - no double bonds - meat and dairy
Mono-unsaturated - 1 double bond - olive and peanut oil
Poly-unsaturated - more than 1 double bond - corn and sunflower oil
Trans (hydrogenated) - trans double bonds - cakes, biscuits, pastries
Has dietary fat improved or not over the last 10 years?
What percentage of your diet should could from fats and what percentage of this should be made up of saturated /unsaturated/trans fats?
less than 35% ideally 30%
less than 2% trans
What are the 2 essential fatty acids?
Omega 3 and 6
What are the 4 types of carbohydrate?
1) Polysaccharides - mainly starch
2) Disaccharides - mainly sucrose
3) Monosaccharide's - mainly glucose and fructose
4) Non-starch polysaccharide - dietary fibre
What is the recommended intake of total carbohydrate and where should most of that come from?
50% - intrinsic and milk sugars and starch
What is NMEs (non-milk extrinsic sugars)?
What food stuff contributes the most to NMEs intake in the UK?
Sweetened soft drinks
'Organic compound required for normal metabollic function which cannot be synthesised in the body- deficiency results in disease' is the definition of what?
'Inorganic molecules which have a physiological function' is the definition of what?
The majority of vitamins are converted into molecules which act as co enzymes other than which 3 vitamins?
A, D, E
Which vitamin is coblamin?
Which vitamin is folic acid?
Which vitamin is Pyridoxal phsophate?
Which vitamin in pantothenic acid?
Which vitamin is niacin?
Which vitamin is riboflavin?