Nutrition and Oral Hydration (Fundamentals Ch 39) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition and Oral Hydration (Fundamentals Ch 39) Deck (29):
1

Carbohydrates

-provide most of the body's energy and fiber
-each gram produces 4 kcal
-whole grain breads, baked potatoes, brown rice

2

Fats

-provide energy and vitamins
-no more than 30% of caloric intake should be from fats
-each gram produces 9 kcal
-olive oil, salmon, egg yolks

3

Proteins

-contribute to growth and repair of body tissues
-each gram produces 4 kcal
-ground beef, whole milk, poultry

4

Vitamins

-necessary for metabolism
-fat-soluble = A, D, E, K
-water-soluble = C and B (8 vitamins)

5

Minerals

-complete essential biochemical reactions in body (calcium, potassium, sodium, iron)

6

Water

-replaces fluids lost through perspiration, eliminatin, and respiration

7

Infants
(birth to 1 year)

-high energy requirements
-breast milk (preferred) or formula to provide:
108 kcal/kg of weight for first 6 months; 98 kcal/kg of weight for the second 6 months
-solid food starting after 6 months
-no cow's milk or honey for first year

8

Toddlers
(12 months to 3 years) AND
Preschoolers
(3 to 6 years)

-need fewer calories per kg of weight than infants
-need increased protein from sources other than milk
-Ca+ and P are important for bone health

9

School-age
(6 to 12 years)

-need supervision to consume adequate protein and vitamins C and A
-tend to eat foods high in carbs, fats, and salt

10

Adolescents
(12 to 20 years)

-metabolic demands are high and require more energy
-protein, Ca+, iron, iodine, folic acid, and vitamin B needs are high
-1/4 of dietary intake comes from snacks
-increased water consumption is important for active adolescents

11

Young adults
(20 to 35 years)
Middle adults
(35 to 65 years)

-decreased need for most nutrients (except during pregnancy)
-Ca+ and iron are essential minerals for women
-good oral health is important

12

Older adults
(over 65 years)

-slower metabolic rate require fewer calories
-thirst sensations diminish
-need same amount of most vitamins and minerals as younger adults
-Ca+ may be necessary and important for M and W
-many require carbs that provide fiber and bulk to enhance GI function

13

BMI

-body mass index
-divide weight (kg) by height (m2)
-BMI of 25 is upper boundary of healthy weight
-BMI 30+ = obese

14

Dietary hx should include:

1) # of meals per day
2) fluid intake
3) food preferences, amount
4) food preparation, purchasing practices, access to food
5) hx of indigestion, heartburn, gas
6) allergies
7) taste
8) chewing and swallowing
9) appetite
10) elimination patterns
11) medication use
12) activity levels
13) religious, cultural food restrictions

15

Subjective/objective data indicating poor nutrition

1) nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
2) flaccid muscles
3) mental status changes
4) loss of appetite
5) change in bowel pattern
6) spleen, liver enlargement
7) dry, brittle hair
8) loss of subcutaneous fat
9) dry, scaly skin
10) inflammation, bleeding of gums
11) poor dental health
12) dry, dull eyes
13) enlarged thyroid
14) prominent protrusions over bony areas
15) weakness
16) change in height
17) poor posture

16

Clear liquid diet

-liquids that leave little residue
-clear fruit juices, gelatin, broth

17

Full liquid diet

-clear liquids plus liquid dairy products
-all juice, pureed vegetables

18

Pureed diet

-clear and full liquids
-plus pureed meats, fruits, scrambled eggs

19

Mechanical soft diet

-clear and full liquids
-plus diced or ground foods

20

Soft/low-residue diet

-foods that are low in fiber and easy to digest

21

High-fiber diet

-whole grains
-raw and dried fruits

22

Low-sodium diet

-no added salt or 1-2 g of Na+

23

Low cholesterol diet

-no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol

24

Diabetic diet

-balanced intake of protein, fats, and carbs of about 1,800 calories

25

Dysphagia diet

-pureed food and thickened liquids

26

Regular diet

-no restriction

27

Parenteral nutrients include:

1) lipids
2) electrolytes
3) minerals
4) vitamins
5) dextrose
6) amino acids

28

Signs or symptoms of dehydration

-hypothermia
-tachycardia, thready pulse
-hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, decreased CVP
-tachypnea, hypoxia
-dizziness, syncope, confusion, weakness, fatigue
-thirst, dry mucous membranes, N/V, anorexia, acute weight loss
-oliguria (decreased production of urine)
-decreased skin turgor, diminished capillary refill, cool clammy skin, diaphoresis, sunken eyeballs, flattened neck veins, absence of tears

29

Labs that indicate fluid volume deficit

-increased Hct ( M: > 52%, F: > 47%)
-increased hemoconcentration osmolarity ( > 300 mOsm/kg)
-increased protein
-increased BUN ( > 20 mg/dL)
-increased electrolytes ( Na+ > 145 mEq/L; K+ > 5 mEq/L; Ca+ > 10.5 mg/dL; Mg+ > 2.1 mEq/L)
-increased glucose
-increased urine specific gravity ( > 1.030)