Nutrition, Biosecurity, Bodyweight and Fat Scoring Flashcards Preview

VMS1001 Animals In Society > Nutrition, Biosecurity, Bodyweight and Fat Scoring > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition, Biosecurity, Bodyweight and Fat Scoring Deck (7)
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What is food/diet?

•Anything edible/everything animal eats.


What is a ration/meal?

•Sequence and quantity of food/eating patterns of individuals/herds on daily basis.


What is a nutrient?

•Chemical component in food that has specific structural/functional activity in body.


What are the six major classes of nutrients? (8)

(Organic - C, H, O, N)
Macro: nutrient used to build tissue.
•Protein - AA ---> proteins ---> muscles, hormones, from meat + cereals/forages.
•Fats/oils - fatty acids + glyercerol ---> lipids ---> cell membranes, signalling molecules, from oil seed grains - limited use for ruminants.
•Carbhoydrates (100% from plant fibre for herbivores, omnivores +carnivores CHO from starch in seeds/grains) - glucose/volatile fatty acids ---> glycogen ---> energy.
Micro: for processes + enzymes
•Vitamins - metabolism, from fresh grass, fresh meet + compound feeds.
•Minerals, macro trace - metabolism from plants (dependent on area), cereals (low), meat.
•Water - maintains hydration, from water + water in feeds.


What is protein needed for? (4)

•Animal growth.
•Body/muscle maintenance.
•Production of young.
•Output products e.g. milk, eggs and wool.


Give some examples of macro minerals. (7)

•Calcium - role in dairy cows especially transition cows, prevents hypocalcemia (produce less colostrum and milk).
•Phosphorus - consider ratio with calcium.
•Sodium - cell transport, Na^+/K^+ pump, active transport, most horses need supplementing.
•Chlorine - dietary cation balance.
•Magnesium - cow + sheep nutrition.
•Potassium - high in forages, challenge to reduce around milking time, keeps calcium in bones rather than milk.


Give some examples of micro minerals. (9)

•Iron - cellular respiration + O2 transport via haemoglobin (50% of body iron involved in haemoglobin), can antagonise Cu + Zn availability, use horse tonics for anaemia.
•Iodine (I) - 1°ly in thyroid hormones that regulate rate of metabolism - deficiency usually not a problem except with goitrogenic (disrupt thyroid hormones production) forages/feedstuffs e.g. turnips, kale, rape, white clovers, use of iodised salt has eliminated decifiency problems.
•Copper - haemoglobin function, enzyme systems, nervous and immune system function, antagonistic relationships with Fe, Zn, S, Mo - sheep susceptible to Cu poisoning when levels approach/exceed 20ppm ∴ if other animals in same field and are fed more Cu, take them out.
•Zinc - stress management, immune response, enzyme systems + protein synthesis.
•Cobalt - component of B12.
•Selenium - prevention of white muscle disease, requirement very close to toxicity level for fast growing lambs and pigs, very toxic to horses.