NUTRITION IN HUMANS Flashcards Preview

A.Biology > NUTRITION IN HUMANS > Flashcards

Flashcards in NUTRITION IN HUMANS Deck (33):
1

CARBS

-pasta, bread
-energy

2

PROTEIN

-meat, egg
-growth and repair

3

LIPID

-oil,butter,cheese
-store of energy for emergencies

4

VITAMIN A

-liver, carrots
-vision, hair and skin heath

5

VITAMIN B

-brown rice, yeast extract
-chemical reactions in the bod e.g respiration

6

VITAMIN C

-orange,lemons
-scurvy

7

VITAMIN D

-egg, butter, cheese
-needed for calcium absorbtion

8

CALCIUM
(MINERAL)

-milk,cheese
-strong bones and teeth

9

IRON
(MINERAL)

-red meats, lentils
-haemoglobin (health blood)

10

WATER

-food,drink
-every bod function-lost through breathing+sweating

11

DIETARY FIBRE

-wholemeal bread
-helps push food through gut

12

WHY WOULD A PREGANT WOMAN NEED MORE ENERGY THAN A MAN

they need to provide energy for two people

13

MOUTH

-broken in to small peices by teeth
-mixed with saliva (contains amylase to break down starch.

14

OESOPHAGUS

-takes food to the stomach
-muscle contraction called peristalsis

15

STOMACH

-digest protein using protease
-stomach enzymes need hydrochloric acid.
-acid kills bacteria
-thick muscular walls churning food + mixing with enzymes

16

SMALL INTESTINE

1.DUODENUM
-enzymes from the pancreas mix with the food.
-to digest starch, protein and lipids the enzymes are = lipase, protease and amylase
2.ILEUM
-the wall makes enzymes such as maltasd, protease and lipase
-small molcules are absorbed through the wall of the ileum into the blood

17

LARGE INTESTINE

1.COLON
-absorbs water from undigested food to make faeces
2.RECTUM
-end of colon
-compacted
-push out of anus by egestion

18

PANCREAS

-produces amylase, lipase and protease enzymes
-these are then released into the small intestine

19

PERISTALSIS

Is the movement of the food along the digestive system by muscular contraction

20

DIGESTION OF STARCH

STARCH--->MALTOSE by AMYLASE

21

DIGESTION OF MALTOSE

MALTOSE--->GLUCOSE by MALTASE

22

DIGESTION OF PROTEINS

PROTIEN--->AMINO ACIDS by PROTEASES

23

DIGESTION OF LIPIDS

LIPIDS--->FATTU ACIDS + GLYCEROL by LIPASES

24

BILE- MADE

in the liver

25

BILE-STORED

in the gall bladder

26

BILE-HELPS

helps digest lipids (fats)

27

BILE-MOVES

-first through BILE DUCT
-then into the duodenum

28

BILE-NEUTRALISES

bile = ALKALINE
so it neutralises the stomach acid

29

VILLUS-PLURAL

villi

30

VILLUS-THE WALL IS...

one cell thick

31

VILLUS-THE LACTEAL (MIDDLE BIT)

absorbs fatty acids

32

VILLUS-BLOOD CAPILLARIES (going across lacteal- looks like waves)

absorbs
-glucose
-ammino acids
-minerals
-vitamins
-water

33

VILLUS-MICROVILLI

-each cell has one
-to increase suface area for absorbtion