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Flashcards in OB &GYN Deck (43):

Changes in pregnancy:
1. Reproductive system (4)
2. Respiratory (5)
3. Cardiovascular (4)
4. GI (2)
5. Urinary (4)
6. musculoskeletal (2)

1. Reproductive system (4)
- uterus b4 prego-2 oz holds 10ml; end of preg 2 lbs holds 5000ml
-preg vascular uterus 1/6 of total blood vol
-mucus plug opening of cervix
-breast enlarge nodular for lactation
2. Respiratory (5)
-O2 demand increase
-resp tract resistance decrease hormone smooth muscle dilation
- tidal vol increase 40%
-resp rate increase slightly
-increase O2 consumption, 20%
3. Cardiovascular (4)
-CO increase
-maternal blood volume increase 45%, incr RBC & plasma, but plasma greater=anemia
-HR incr by 10-15 bmp
-BP decr slight 1st 2nd trimester and then normal
4. GI (2)
-N/V 1st trimester need for carbs
-bloating constipation decr peristalsis
5. Urinary (4)
-renal blood flow incr
-GF incr 50% 2nd trimester
-bladder displaced superiorly anteriorly (incr risk injury)
-urine frequent
6. musculoskeletal (2)
-pelvic joints loosen due to hormone
-change in center of gravity


spontaneous abortion
1.pathophysiology (3)
2. assessment (3)

-80% occurs prior to 12th weeks 1st tri
-15-20% in preg genetics or uterine abnormality, infection, drugs, maternal dx
-cramping & vaginal bleeding 8-12 wks
2. assessment
-cramplike lower abd like labor or menstrual cramps
-moderate-severe vaginal bleeding
-passage of tissue or blood clots


Placenta previa
1.pathophysiology (3)
1a. 3 types
1b. predisposing factors (6)
2. assessment (1)

1.pathophysiology (3)
-major cause of 3rd tri bleeding
-abnormal implantation of placenta over or near opening of cervix (normal in fundus & posteriorly)
-bleeding not associated with abnormal uterine contraction or pain
-Total:completely covers os block birth canal and prevent delivery
-partial: may obstruct
-marginal: near neck of cervix
-predisposing factors: multiparity, rapid succession of preg, greater than 35, previa previa, hx vaginal bleeding, bleeding after intercourse
2. assessment (1)
-3rd trimester bleeding painless


Abruptio Placentae
1.pathophysiology (1)
1a. causes problems (
1b. types (2)
1c. predisposing factors (8)
2. assessment (7)

1.pathophysiology (3)
-small arteries lining btw placenta and uterus prone to rupture-->accumulate blood tear & separate placenta from uterine wall
1a. causes (20: poor gas exchange, waste btw fetus & placenta; severe maternal blood loss
1b. types (2): complete and partial
1c. predisposing factors:
-cocaine vasoactive drugs
-previous abruption
-short umbilical cord
-premature rupture of amniotic sac
2. assessment (7)
-vaginal blleeding constant abd pain (hallmark)
-abd pain due to muslce spasm
-pain lower back
-uterine contraction
-abdomen tender
-vaginal bleed varies in amount
-S&S hypovolemic shock present


Ruptured uterus
2. Assessment

-uterine enlarge in preg and thin around cervix
-lead to rupture wall and release fetus into abd cavity
-5-20% maternal mortality and >50% infant mortality
-rupture requires immediate surgery
2. Assessment
-hx previous rupture
-hx abdominal trauma
-hx large fetus
-hx prolonged & difficult labor
-hx C-sec or uterine surgery
-tearing or shearing sensation in abdomen
-constant & severe abd pain
-S&S shock (hypoperfusion)
-vaginal bleeding
-cessation of uterine contraction
-palpatable infant in abd cavity


Description of perineal injuries:
2. causes
3. management

1. very vascular, large blood loss, painful
2.sexual assault,
-straddle injury from bicycle
-lacerations or hematomas
-urethral injuries
3.control bleeding with direct pressure
-apply ice pack


1.menstrual cycle how often?
2.what happens?
3. where is the fertilization occurs and after how many days?
4.no fertilization?

1. every 28 days egg released
2. blood supply to uterus increases, wall thickens
3. implant in uterus wall after 7 days
4. egg, extra blood, tissue discarded=period


Understand anatomic and physiologic
changes of pregnancy



Identify 5 pre-delivery emergencies

• Bleeding in early pregnancy
• Threatened abortion/still birth
• Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
• Trauma in pregnancy
• Ruptured uterus


what is a placenta?

• Vascular organ
• Exchange area for nutrients, O2
• Expelled after birth


Umbilical Cord

• 2 way blood flow
• 3 vessels surrounded by clear
protective (1 veins, 2 arteries)


Amniotic sac

• Grows from placenta
• Encases fetus
• 16-32 ounces of clear watery liquid


5 Pregnancy changes in Cardiovascular
-three result of hypovolemia

1. plasma volume up 50%
2. RBC up 18-30%
3. pulse up 15-20 bpm
4. BP lower than normal
5. Hypovolemia
-response is constriction of uterine arteries
-redirect flow to major organs
-can be intensified with position of patient


Supine hypotensive syndrome of pregnancy (3)

• Fetus presses on inferior
vena cava
• Inhibits venous return to
the heart
• Decreases cardiac output


4 changes in Pregnancy - Pulmonary

§ Respiratory rate – same or slightly increased
§ Tidal volume up 50%
§ O2 demand increased
§ Progesterone relaxes muscle
• feeling of air hunger


3 changes in preganncy-GI
-what effects does progesterone have on GI (3)

§ Uterus physically crowds abdominal contents
§ Assume stomach is full
§ Aspiration is possible

progesterone has a slowing effect on GI tract
1. decreased rate of gastric emptying
2. food remains in stomach for longer time
3. relaxation of sphincter btw stomach and esophagus


2 changes in pregnancy-uterus
-2 effects of increased blood flow to uterus?

§ Uterus is more susceptible to injury as it
leaves the bony pelvis and acts as barrier for
other organs

§ Blood flow to uterus is enhanced
• Increased vascularity is serious if uterus is injured
• Pelvic fractures cause severe blood loss


1.location of ectopic pregnancy
2. time frame
3.mistaken for
4. 9 description of Ectopic pregn

§ Ectopic pregnancy
• 90% occur in fallopian tubes
§ 4 to 6 weeks pregnant
§ Often mistaken for

1. History of amenorrhea
2. Positive pregnancy test result
3. Abdomen swollen
4. Patient may not tell/ know she is pregnant
5. Bleeding usually light
6. Poorly localized lower abdominal pain
7. Pain may radiate to shoulder area and may
be severe
8. Some vaginal or rectal pain may be present
9. Nausea and vomiting


management of Ectopic pregnancy

-if pt lost much blood->tx for shock if hypovolemia symptoms are present
-life threatening


Placentia Previa (3)

§ Placentia Previa
• Occurs when placenta
implants over cervix
• Painless bleeding in late
• No way to diagnose


Placental Abruption

Placental Abruption
• Premature separation of placenta from uterus after 20 weeks gestation
• Sudden onset intense abdominal pain


Risk factors of placental abruption
-is bleeding present?
-what needs to be monitor

• Hypertension
• Preeclampsia
• Cocaine use
• Trauma – direct blow or accel/decel force

-Vaginal bleeding not
always present
- Need fetal monitoring


Treatment of Placental Abruption

§ Treatment
• Focus is on prevention and treatment of shock
• Place patient on her left side
• Elevate hips with pillows to alleviate pressure on the cervix
• Administer O2
• Monitor vital signs


1. Abortion before 30 wks, after 20wks
2. early premie viability
3. signs of abortion/miscarriage

§ Abortion/miscarriage
• Loss of pregnancy before 20 wks gestation
• Stillbirth - after 20 wks
• Earliest age of viability that an infant can survive
outside the womb is approximately 23 wks
§ Signs
• Loss of substantial amount of blood
• Leaking of amniotic fluid in the 1st trimester


what is the second leading cause of maternal death?
-list 6 symptoms of it


-2nd leading cause of maternal death in US
-Symptoms include:
• BP > 160-180
• Decreased urine
• Visual changes
• Pulmonary edema
• Seizures
• Bleeding disorders


tx for pre/eclampsia

§ Treatment
• Provide quiet, dark environment
• Use soft voice; avoid jostling or noise
• Have suction available in case a seizure begins
• If seizures occur, administer O2
• Transport in left lateral recumbent position
-can occur after 20 days postpartum


first leading cause of maternal death
-what can prevent/reduce severity?
-increase pressure from lap belt cause (3)

§ MVCs are responsible for majority of all
• Injury is less severe if mother is wearing a seat
belt with shoulder restraint
• Sudden increase in pressure from lap belt alone
can cause:
• Burst-balloon uterine rupture
• Abruptio placentae
• Fetal death


1. premature labor by blunt trauma cause (3)
2. fetal outcome determined from trauma?
3.what causes uterine lacerations?

1. uterine stimulation by blunt trauma:
-Precipitate labor contractions
• Cause premature membrane rupture
• Abruptio placentae

2. Fetal outcome determined by:
• Extent of placental abruption
• Rapidity of treatment
• Fetus age

3.broken ribs or pelvic bones


Treating pregnant trauma victim

Treating pregnant trauma victim
• Recall physiologic changes of pregnancy
• Assume stomach is full
• Treating 2 patients
• Prevent shock
• Spinal precautions
• Initial ABCs
• Pregnant transport position

§ Patients beyond the 20th week
should be tilted 15° to the left
§ Place rolled towels beneath the
spinal board
§ Can get supine hypotension
syndrome when uterus compresses inferior vena cava
§ Can decrease cardiac output by up to 30%


So what happens if your pregnant patient

§ ABC’s
§ Adequate chest compressions with patient
tilted to the left
§ ACLS protocols
§ Transport to nearest facility ASAP


Symptoms (3) of uterine rupture
-9 risk factors

§ Symptoms
• Pain
• Bleeding with shock
• Cessation of contractions

§ Risk Factors
• Prior cesarean section
• Prior rupture
• Trauma
• Injury from instrumentation
• Uterine anomalies
• Malpresentation
• Fetal anomaly
• Obstructed labor
• Excessive uterine stimulation
due to crack-cocaine


1st stage o labor
-contraction is timed?

1st stage
• First contraction to full
cervical dilation
• Intermittant contractions
• NOT Braxton Hicks
§ Contractions
• Timed from beginning of 1 to
beginning of next
• Become more painful, longer
& closer together
• Bloody show may be seen
• Amniotic sac may break any


2nd stage of labor

§ 2nd stage
• “Pushing stage”
• Begins when cervix dilated
• Ends with birth
• Usually 1+ hours with 1st baby
• Pressure on the rectum by fetal head as it
descends causes urge to push


3rd stage of labor

§ 3rd stage
• Begins with delivery of baby
• Ends with placenta delivery
• Uterus greatly reduced in size
• Uterine wall reduced
• Placenta is squeezed off uterine wall
• Uterus contracts into hard ball & slows flow of
blood from open blood vessels


visual examination

• Check for distention or bulging of the perineum
• Inside wall of the rectum may be visible as
sphincter is stretched open
• Perform during contraction
• Crowning
• Presenting part descends into pelvis
• As presenting part fills the pelvic cavity, any fecal
material in the mother’s rectum is expelled


6 cardinal movement of labor

1. engagment
2. flexion
3. descent
4. internal rotation
5. extension
6. complete extension
7. external rotation/restitution
8. delivery of anterior shoulder
9. delivery of posterior shoulder


management of shoulder dystocia

HEL(egs)P(ressure)E(nter vagina)R(oll)

-maternal hips are flexed knees on abdomen
-causing rotation of maternal pelvis and increasing size of pelvic outlet
-suprapubic--pressure applied to drive fetal shoulder downward under pubic bone
-insert hand to level fetal elbow, grasp forearm, sweep across chest to deliver posterior arm/shoulder
-roll anterior shoulder toward fetal chest and add posterior shoulder pressure toward chest


If unable to deliver shoulder dystocia after manual manupulation

-fracture fetal clavicle
-symphysiotomy (divide cartilage of pubic symphysis)
-cesarean section


Cord prolapse

-rare in term cephalic pregnancies (0.4%)
-more common in malpresentations
1.footling breech (15-18%)
2.transverse lie (up to 20%)
-dx by palpation of cord on exam


managment of cord prolapse

-manual replacement
-mom onO2
-trendelenberg and or left lateral decubitus
-push presenting part off cord
-immediate C-section


postpartum hemorrhage

§ Blood loss greater than 500 mL after delivery
§ Early – 1st 24 hrs
• Genital lacerations
• Uterine rupture
• Coagulation defects
§ Uterine inversion
• Excessive traction on cord
• Bearing down too hard during 2nd stage of labor
§ Uterine prolapse
• Supporting structures fail
• Uterus falls out of vagina


uterine atony

§ Uterine atony
• Uterus fails to contract
• Massive bleeding from the vagina
• Signs of shock quickly follow
• Uterus poorly defined, soft, boggy mass
• Often above the level of the umbilicus
• Uterus should be massaged until it is firm and hard
• If bleeding is severe, treat for shock


Late postpartum hemorrhage

§ Late postpartum
• 6 to 10 days later
• Retained placental tissue
• Infection
• Coital (sexual) trauma
• Rupture of episiotomy wound

§ May be able to control bleeding:
• Uterine massage
• Direct pressure with sanitary pad
• Do not place packing or dressings inside the