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Flashcards in Obedience Deck (50):
1

Name a key study of obedience

Milgram

2

Where was Milgram's experiment conducted?

Yale university

3

What sampling was used in Milgram's study?

Volunteer sampling

4

Describe the procedure of Milgram's study

Participants were assigned the role of the 'teacher'.
They had to give the learner an electric shock if they answered a question incorrectly.

5

What was the minimum and maximum voltage given?

15V to 450V

6

What prods were used to encourage the participant to continue?

Please continue
The experiment requires you to continue
It is absolutely essential that you continue
You have no other choice but to continue

7

What were the results from Milgram's study?

100% of participants administered electric shocks up to 300V.
65% of participants went all the way to 450V
Participants showed extreme signs of distress

8

Is Milgram's study an example of situational or dispositional explanation for obedience?

Situational explanation for obedience

9

List the variations made to Milgram's study

Location variation
Proximity variation (of the learner)
Touch-proximity
Experimenter absent variation
2 peers rebel
Teacher's discretion

10

What % went to 450 V in the location variation?

48%

11

% to 450V in proximity variation?

40%

12

% to max V when touch-proximity?

30%

13

% to max V when experimenter absent?

21%

14

% to max V when 2 peers rebelled?

10%

15

% to 450 V when teacher's discretion?

2.5%

16

Give strengths of Milgram's study

Research support: Hofling's nurses. Therefore has external validity.

17

What were the weakness of Milgram's study?

Unethical: protection from harm, withdrawal, deception

Lacks external validity because it's an artificial task performed in a highly controlled lab study.

Other research (e.g. Rank + Jacobson's nurses) don't support findings.

18

Explain Hofling's nurses study

Instructions given by an unknown doctor over the phone and 21/22 nurses performed the task given.

19

Explain Rank + Jacobson's nurses study

16/18 nurses refused to follow an order, after a discussion with their colleagues.

20

State the 2 explanations for obedience

Situational
Dispositional

21

List situational explanations for obedience

Agentic State
Uniform
Location
Legitimacy of Authority
Proximity

22

Explain uniform as an explanation for obedience

Uniform conveys power and authority so increases rates of obedience

23

What study supports the fact that uniform increases obedience?

Bickman
Civilian, Milkman, Police Officer demand orders
Most people obeyed the Police Officer/guard

24

Explain location as an explanation for obedience

More prestigious location leads to higher obedience rates

25

Give an example where location affects obedience rates

Milgram's variation: Different Location
When the study moved from Yale university to run-down office blocks, obedience decreased (to 48%) because they didn't view the study as being as legitimate as before.

26

Explain how proximity affects obedience

When teacher and learner were in the same room, obedience decreased (to 40%) and when there was touch-proximity, obedience decreased again (to 30%).
When the authority figure was absent, obedience decreased to 21%.

27

Explain the agentic state as an explanation for obedience

When people are in the agentic state, they are more likely to obey because they believe that others are responsible for their actions.
In Milgram's experiment, the participants experienced an agentic shift when shifting the responsibility of the consequences of their actions onto the experimenter

28

What state were the participants in during the teacher's discretion variation?

Autonomous. They believed they were responsible for the consequences of their own actions.

29

Strengths of the agentic state as an explanation for obedience

Research Support: Hofling's nurses were in the agentic state

Applications: Nazi war, soldiers in agentic state because they were simply just following orders

30

Weaknesses of the agentic state explanation

Adorno et al. believes obedience was due to personality factors.

T.L. the experimenter told the participants that he was responsible, however this explanation doesn't explain why there wasn't a higher rate of obedience.

31

Explain legitimacy of authority as an explanation for obedience

Increases obedience because we feel more pressure to obey.
We learn legitimacy of authority from adult figures in our childhood.
People above us in the social hierarchy have legitimacy of authority.

32

Strengths of legitimacy of authority

Applications in everyday life. e.g. we respond to a police officer/paramedic

33

Weaknesses of legitimacy of authority

Opposing argument: Adorno et al.

34

Which psychologist supports the idea of dispositional explanations for obedience?

Adorno (et al.)

35

Give an example of a dispositional explanation

Authoritarian personality

36

List key characteristics of someone with an authoritarian personality

Hostile
Strong beliefs in hierarchy
Highly obedient
Believe in power

37

What does Adorno believe about how those with authoritarian personalities were raised?

Strict parenting
Conditional love
Criticism

38

What does the F-scale measure?

Authoritarian personality

39

What are characteristics of fascism?

Prejudice
Racism
Obsession with power/status

40

What were the problems with the F-scale?

Acquiescence bias

Response bias

41

What is acquiescence bias?

Where all of the questions are worded in the same way.
The tendency to agree with every question.

42

What is response bias?

Social desirability may have affected results because it may have been obvious which answer indicated they have an authoritarian personality.

43

What are 3 components of right-wing authoritarianism?

Conventionality
Authoritarian aggression
Authoritarian submission

44

Who re-developed the F-scale?

Altimeyer

45

Why was the F-scale re-developed?

To overcome acquiescence bias by using counter-balancing.

46

Strengths of the authoritarian personality explanation

R.S. similar studies to Milgram showed that those with higher RWA levels were more obedient

Applications: Parenting manuals advising less strict parenting, unconditional love

47

What are weaknesses of the authoritarian personality explanation?

O.P Milgram believed that situational explanations caused people to obey instead

Deterministic: states that if someone has an authoritarian personality, they WILL be obedient

48

Outline Elms and Milgram's study

Mixture of obedient and non-obedient participants from Milgram's study were interviewed and completed a personality test, along with an F-scale questionnaire.

49

What were the findings from Elms and Milgram's study?

They found that obedient people had a higher F-scale score, were less close to fathers, and looked down upon the learners.

50

What is a research limitation of Elms and Milgram's study?

Small sample used