Flashcards in Obedience Deck (50):
Name a key study of obedience
Where was Milgram's experiment conducted?
What sampling was used in Milgram's study?
Describe the procedure of Milgram's study
Participants were assigned the role of the 'teacher'.
They had to give the learner an electric shock if they answered a question incorrectly.
What was the minimum and maximum voltage given?
15V to 450V
What prods were used to encourage the participant to continue?
The experiment requires you to continue
It is absolutely essential that you continue
You have no other choice but to continue
What were the results from Milgram's study?
100% of participants administered electric shocks up to 300V.
65% of participants went all the way to 450V
Participants showed extreme signs of distress
Is Milgram's study an example of situational or dispositional explanation for obedience?
Situational explanation for obedience
List the variations made to Milgram's study
Proximity variation (of the learner)
Experimenter absent variation
2 peers rebel
What % went to 450 V in the location variation?
% to 450V in proximity variation?
% to max V when touch-proximity?
% to max V when experimenter absent?
% to max V when 2 peers rebelled?
% to 450 V when teacher's discretion?
Give strengths of Milgram's study
Research support: Hofling's nurses. Therefore has external validity.
What were the weakness of Milgram's study?
Unethical: protection from harm, withdrawal, deception
Lacks external validity because it's an artificial task performed in a highly controlled lab study.
Other research (e.g. Rank + Jacobson's nurses) don't support findings.
Explain Hofling's nurses study
Instructions given by an unknown doctor over the phone and 21/22 nurses performed the task given.
Explain Rank + Jacobson's nurses study
16/18 nurses refused to follow an order, after a discussion with their colleagues.
State the 2 explanations for obedience
List situational explanations for obedience
Legitimacy of Authority
Explain uniform as an explanation for obedience
Uniform conveys power and authority so increases rates of obedience
What study supports the fact that uniform increases obedience?
Civilian, Milkman, Police Officer demand orders
Most people obeyed the Police Officer/guard
Explain location as an explanation for obedience
More prestigious location leads to higher obedience rates
Give an example where location affects obedience rates
Milgram's variation: Different Location
When the study moved from Yale university to run-down office blocks, obedience decreased (to 48%) because they didn't view the study as being as legitimate as before.
Explain how proximity affects obedience
When teacher and learner were in the same room, obedience decreased (to 40%) and when there was touch-proximity, obedience decreased again (to 30%).
When the authority figure was absent, obedience decreased to 21%.
Explain the agentic state as an explanation for obedience
When people are in the agentic state, they are more likely to obey because they believe that others are responsible for their actions.
In Milgram's experiment, the participants experienced an agentic shift when shifting the responsibility of the consequences of their actions onto the experimenter
What state were the participants in during the teacher's discretion variation?
Autonomous. They believed they were responsible for the consequences of their own actions.
Strengths of the agentic state as an explanation for obedience
Research Support: Hofling's nurses were in the agentic state
Applications: Nazi war, soldiers in agentic state because they were simply just following orders
Weaknesses of the agentic state explanation
Adorno et al. believes obedience was due to personality factors.
T.L. the experimenter told the participants that he was responsible, however this explanation doesn't explain why there wasn't a higher rate of obedience.
Explain legitimacy of authority as an explanation for obedience
Increases obedience because we feel more pressure to obey.
We learn legitimacy of authority from adult figures in our childhood.
People above us in the social hierarchy have legitimacy of authority.
Strengths of legitimacy of authority
Applications in everyday life. e.g. we respond to a police officer/paramedic
Weaknesses of legitimacy of authority
Opposing argument: Adorno et al.
Which psychologist supports the idea of dispositional explanations for obedience?
Adorno (et al.)
Give an example of a dispositional explanation
List key characteristics of someone with an authoritarian personality
Strong beliefs in hierarchy
Believe in power
What does Adorno believe about how those with authoritarian personalities were raised?
What does the F-scale measure?
What are characteristics of fascism?
Obsession with power/status
What were the problems with the F-scale?
What is acquiescence bias?
Where all of the questions are worded in the same way.
The tendency to agree with every question.
What is response bias?
Social desirability may have affected results because it may have been obvious which answer indicated they have an authoritarian personality.
What are 3 components of right-wing authoritarianism?
Who re-developed the F-scale?
Why was the F-scale re-developed?
To overcome acquiescence bias by using counter-balancing.
Strengths of the authoritarian personality explanation
R.S. similar studies to Milgram showed that those with higher RWA levels were more obedient
Applications: Parenting manuals advising less strict parenting, unconditional love
What are weaknesses of the authoritarian personality explanation?
O.P Milgram believed that situational explanations caused people to obey instead
Deterministic: states that if someone has an authoritarian personality, they WILL be obedient
Outline Elms and Milgram's study
Mixture of obedient and non-obedient participants from Milgram's study were interviewed and completed a personality test, along with an F-scale questionnaire.
What were the findings from Elms and Milgram's study?
They found that obedient people had a higher F-scale score, were less close to fathers, and looked down upon the learners.