Flashcards in Obesity Deck (31):
What is Energy homeostasis?
Physiological process whereby energy intake is
matched to energy expenditure over time
What is Metabolic syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.
How is BMI calculated?
Weight (Kg) / Square of height (M)
What is the BMI for being overweight?
What is the BMI for being obese?
What are two major factor inflecting obesity?
What diseases does Obesity cause?
Type 2 diabetes
High blood pressure
What major disease does obesity increase?
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
What is NAFLD?
Non-alcoholic-fatty liver disease
What is the use of fat?
Prevention of starvation
Energy buffer during prolonged stress
What effect does long term obesity cause?
Causes a change in the hormones, which causes brain reprogramming.
What controls the energy intake if the body?
Autonomic nevous systemm - regulates energy expenditure
Neuroendocrine system - secretion of hormones.
What does lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus cause?
What does lessening of the lateral hypothalamus cause?
What satiation signals are used to feed back to the hypothalamus?
Glucagon-Like- Peptide 1
What is the hunger hormone signal?
What secretes Ghrelin?
Oxyntic cells in the stomach.
What is the function of Ghrelin?
Peripheral ghrelin stimulates food intake (Hypo) and decreases
Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals. Levels are raised by fasting and hypoglycaemia.
Describe the role of hormone signals and the hypothalamus?
Signals are produced in response to body nutritional status.
These are sensed in the hypothalamus
Act to modulate food intake and energy expenditure
What are the central appetite controllers?
Glutamate - increase food intake when injected into hypothalamic centres - effects modest/short
Monoamines - act to suppress food intake
What are the two hormones report the adiposity (fat status) to the brain?
What effect does reduced leptin minic?
Reduced leptin mimics starvation, causing
What gene produces leptin?
What are the roles of Leptin?
Food intake/energy expenditure/fat deposition
Peripheral glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity
Maintenance of immune system
Maintenance of reproductive system
What effect does insulin have on the hypothalamus?
insulin inhibits food intake
and decreases body weight
What does neurone specific deletion of insulin receptors result in?
What is the peripheral actions of insulin?
Why can leptin therapy not be used in common obesity?
Limitation on leptin due to resistance in Obesity
What treatment is effective for obesity?
How does Bariatric surgery work ?
Reduces the stomach capacity
It also reserves type 2 diabetes in obese patients
Alters secretion of peptides from the stomach and gut that affects beta ells and hypothalamus