Obesity Flashcards Preview

GastroIntestinal (GI) > Obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obesity Deck (31):
1

What is Energy homeostasis?

Physiological process whereby energy intake is
matched to energy expenditure over time

2

What is Metabolic syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.

3

How is BMI calculated?

Weight (Kg) / Square of height (M)

4

What is the BMI for being overweight?

25-29.9

5

What is the BMI for being obese?

30.0-39.9

6

What are two major factor inflecting obesity?

Genetics
Environment

7

What diseases does Obesity cause?

Type 2 diabetes
High blood pressure
Heart attack
Cancers
Oesteoarthritis
stroke
NAFLD
Dementia

8

What major disease does obesity increase?

Type II Diabetes Mellitus

9

What is NAFLD?

Non-alcoholic-fatty liver disease

10

What is the use of fat?

Energy storage
Prevention of starvation
Energy buffer during prolonged stress

11

What effect does long term obesity cause?

Causes a change in the hormones, which causes brain reprogramming.

12

What controls the energy intake if the body?

Behavioir
Autonomic nevous systemm - regulates energy expenditure
Neuroendocrine system - secretion of hormones.

13

What does lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus cause?

Obesity

14

What does lessening of the lateral hypothalamus cause?

Leanness.

15

What satiation signals are used to feed back to the hypothalamus?

Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Peptide YY
Glucagon-Like- Peptide 1
Oxyntomodulin
Obestatin

16

What is the hunger hormone signal?

Ghrelin

17

What secretes Ghrelin?

Oxyntic cells in the stomach.

18

What is the function of Ghrelin?

Peripheral ghrelin stimulates food intake (Hypo) and decreases
fat utilization

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals. Levels are raised by fasting and hypoglycaemia.


19

Describe the role of hormone signals and the hypothalamus?

Signals are produced in response to body nutritional status.
These are sensed in the hypothalamus
Act to modulate food intake and energy expenditure

20

What are the central appetite controllers?

Glutamate - increase food intake when injected into hypothalamic centres - effects modest/short
lasting

Monoamines - act to suppress food intake

21

What are the two hormones report the adiposity (fat status) to the brain?

Leptin
Insulin

22

What effect does reduced leptin minic?

Reduced leptin mimics starvation, causing
unrestrained appetite

23

What gene produces leptin?

Ob gene

24

What are the roles of Leptin?

Food intake/energy expenditure/fat deposition

Peripheral glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity

Maintenance of immune system

Maintenance of reproductive system

Angiogenesis

Tumourigenesis

Bone formation

25

What effect does insulin have on the hypothalamus?

insulin inhibits food intake
and decreases body weight

26

What does neurone specific deletion of insulin receptors result in?

Obesity

27

What is the peripheral actions of insulin?

Anabolic

28

Why can leptin therapy not be used in common obesity?

Limitation on leptin due to resistance in Obesity

29

What treatment is effective for obesity?

Bariatric surgery

30

How does Bariatric surgery work ?

Reduces the stomach capacity
It also reserves type 2 diabetes in obese patients
Alters secretion of peptides from the stomach and gut that affects beta ells and hypothalamus

31

What other mechanism of weight loss may be used for obesity treatment?

Adaptive Thermogenesis
- Adult humans posses Brown Adipose Tissue

- Thermogenic adipocytes increases energy expenditure by oxidative metabolism from ATP production. Accelerates oxidation, produces heat.