Flashcards in Objectives and Qualitative Characteristics Deck (19):
What is considered as the conceptual framework for Financial Accounting?
FASB Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts
What is the "constitution for developing specific GAAP?
FASB Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (The conceptual Framework)
List the parts of the conceptual Framework
1.)Objective of Financial Reporting
2.) Qualitative characteristics of accounting information
3.) Accounting Assumptions
4.) Basic Accounting Principles
5.) Cost Constraint
6.) Elements of Financial Statements
What is the objective of general purpose financial reporting?
To Provide information about the entity that is useful to current and future investors and creditors in making decisions as capital providers
What useful information does General Purpose Financial Reporting provide to investors and creditors?
1.) The amount, timing, and uncertainty of an entity's cash flows.
2.) Ability of the entity to generate future net cash inflows
3.) An entity's economic resources (assets) and claims to those resources (liabilities) which provides insight into the entity's financial strengths and weaknesses.and it's liquidity and solvency.
4.) The effectiveness with which management has met it's stewardship responsibilities
5.) The effect of transactions and other events that change an entity's economic resources and it's claim to those resources.
What are the two primary qualitative characteristics for financial statement information to be useful?
1.) Relevance - Predictive and confirmatory value, and materiality
2.) Faithful Representation - Completeness, neutrality, free from error.
In addition to the two primary qualitative characteristics when dealing with financial statement usefulness, what 4 enhancing characteristics should be present?
1.) Comparability - The quality of information that enables users to identify similarities and differences between sets of information. Consistency in application of recognition and measurement methods over time enhances comparability.
2.) Verifiability - Verifiable if independent observers could reach similar conclusions based on the information.
3.) Timeliness - Information received in time to make a difference to the decision maker.
4.) Understandability - If the user comprehends it within the decision context at hand.
For information to be useful in decision-making, what two characteristics should it have?
It must be both relevant and a faithful representation of the economic phenomena it represents
How is relevance defined?
Information is relevant if it makes a difference to decision makers in their role as capital providers. Information is relevant when it has predictive value, confirmatory value, or both.
What are the three components of relevance?
1.) Predictive Value - Has this if it assists capital providers in forming expectations about future events
2.) Confirmatory Value - Information has this if it confirms or changes past (or present) expectations based on previous evaluations.
3.) Materiality - Information that is material will impact a user's decision. The FASB believes that materiality is entity specific and that material information is relevant to the decision maker.
How is faithful representation defined?
Information is reported faithfully when the reported measure and the condition or situation are in agreement. Information is representationally faithful when it is complete, neutral, and free from material error. This replaces Reliability as a primary qualitative characteristic
What are the three components of Faithful representation?
1.) Completeness - Information is complete if it includes all data necessary to be faithfully representative
2.) Neutral - Information is free from any bias intended to attain a prespecified result, or to encourage or discourage certain behavior
3.) Free from error - when there are no emissions or errors
Can relevance and faithful representation conflict?
Yes, in such cases a trade-off is made favoring one or the other.
What are enhancing characteristics?
Complementary to the primary characteristics and enhance the decision usefulness of financial reporting information that is relevant and faithfully represented
What is comparability? (Enhancing characteristic)
Quality of information that enables users to identify similarities and differences between sets of information. Consistency in application of recognition and measurement methods over time enhances comparability
What is verifiability? (Enhancing characteristic)
Information is verifiable if different knowledgable and independent observers could reach similar conclusions based on information
What is timeliness? (Enhancing characteristic)
Information is timely received in time to make a difference to the decision maker
What is understandability? (Enhancing characteristic)
The user must be able to comprehend information within the decision context at hand.