Flashcards in Observations Deck (21):
What are Observations?
When you observe and record naturally occurring behaviour.
What is a Covert Observation?
Where the experimenter takes part in the study but is undercover.
What is an Overt Observation?
When the experimenter take apart on the observation, and the other participants are aware.
What is a Structured Observation?
The researcher decides on a set list of behaviour they're looking for, and records only these set details.
What is an Unstructured Observation?
When the observer records all actions performed.
What is a Participant Observation?
When the researcher is part of the action they're observing.
What is a Non-Participant Observation?
When the researcher does not join in with the activity being observed.
Advantages and disadvantages of Covert Observations?
+ fewer demand characteristics, allowed to observe freely
- unethical, hard to record data while keeping up the facade
Advantages and disadvantages of Overt Observations?
+ ethical, stronger link with participants
- demand characteristics, low ecological validity
Advantages and disadvantages of Structured Observations?
+ quantitative data is easy to analyse
- researcher bias
Advantages and disadvantages of Unstructured Observations?
+ both data types
- difficult to accurately record everything
Advantages and disadvantages of Participant Observations?
+ normal behaviour is seen, ecological validity
- difficult to partake and record, researcher bias
Advantages and disadvantages of Non-Participant Observations?
+ better viewpoint
- only interpretation
Two ways to increase inter-tater reliability?
- list behaviours each is looking for and compare
- a trial run to see if the behaviours are interpreted the same
What are the 5 key questions?
Advantages and disadvantages of Observations?
+ high ecological validity, low demand characteristics
- hard to replicate, no qualitative data
What are the 5 ethics to be considered in observations?
- invasion of space
What is an Event Sample?
A structured observation that watches the whole event, keeping a tally of each time a behaviour occurs.
What is Time Sampling?
Unstructured observations for set amounts of time at set intervals.
Advantages and disadvantages of Event Sampling?
+ high quantity, easier to generalise
- miss data, harder to tally