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Psychology G451 > Observations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Observations Deck (21):
0

What are Observations?

When you observe and record naturally occurring behaviour.

1

What is a Covert Observation?

Where the experimenter takes part in the study but is undercover.

2

What is an Overt Observation?

When the experimenter take apart on the observation, and the other participants are aware.

3

What is a Structured Observation?

The researcher decides on a set list of behaviour they're looking for, and records only these set details.

4

What is an Unstructured Observation?

When the observer records all actions performed.

5

What is a Participant Observation?

When the researcher is part of the action they're observing.

6

What is a Non-Participant Observation?

When the researcher does not join in with the activity being observed.

7

Advantages and disadvantages of Covert Observations?

+ fewer demand characteristics, allowed to observe freely
- unethical, hard to record data while keeping up the facade

8

Advantages and disadvantages of Overt Observations?

+ ethical, stronger link with participants
- demand characteristics, low ecological validity

9

Advantages and disadvantages of Structured Observations?

+ quantitative data is easy to analyse
- researcher bias

10

Advantages and disadvantages of Unstructured Observations?

+ both data types
- difficult to accurately record everything

11

Advantages and disadvantages of Participant Observations?

+ normal behaviour is seen, ecological validity
- difficult to partake and record, researcher bias

12

Advantages and disadvantages of Non-Participant Observations?

+ better viewpoint
- only interpretation

13

Two ways to increase inter-tater reliability?

- list behaviours each is looking for and compare
- a trial run to see if the behaviours are interpreted the same

14

What are the 5 key questions?

- who?
- what?
- when?
- where?
- how?

15

Advantages and disadvantages of Observations?

+ high ecological validity, low demand characteristics
- hard to replicate, no qualitative data

16

What are the 5 ethics to be considered in observations?

- consent
- publication
- privacy
- withdrawal
- invasion of space

17

What is an Event Sample?

A structured observation that watches the whole event, keeping a tally of each time a behaviour occurs.

18

What is Time Sampling?

Unstructured observations for set amounts of time at set intervals.

19

Advantages and disadvantages of Event Sampling?

+ high quantity, easier to generalise
- miss data, harder to tally

20

Advantages and disadvantages of Time Sampling?

+ specific details, increased concentration
- can miss crucial data, may not be representative