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Flashcards in Occupational And Environmental Health Nursing: An Overview Deck (244):
1

Primary objectives of occupational health and safety practice

1. Prevent work related illness and injuries
2. Evaluating and treating work related illness or injury
3. Promoting health and safety behaviors
4. Implementing hazard prevention and abatement interventions
5. Advocating organizational attention to environmental concerns

2

Occupational health discipline collaborations

1. Occupational and environmental health nurses
2. Occupational physicians
3. Industrial hygienists
4. Safety engineers
5. Epidemiologists
6. Toxicologists
7. Industrial engineers
8. Ergonomists
9. Health educators
10. Occupational and physical therapists
11. Vocational rehabilitation specialists

3

Dimensions of workplace that affect worker health and safety

1. Social
2. Cultural
3. Political
4. Economic
5. Organizational

4

Social components of workplace

1. Meaning of work
2. Social milieu of worker, including baseline health
3. Structure of work

5

Cultural components of workplace

1. Beliefs
2. Attitudes
3. Values

All as related to work

6

Economic components of workplace

1. Levels of unemployment
2. Competition
3. Wage regulation
4. Overall health of local economy

7

Organizational components of workplace

1. Corporate mission, philosophy and values
2. Financial and structural viability of organization
3. Job security issues
4. Production structure and requirements

8

Groups affected by occupational health and safety programs

1. Worker
2. Workers family and significant others
3. Community
4. Larger society

9

The concept and value of work is fundamental to every...

1. Nation
2. Race
3. Culture
4. Time

10

Earliest reference to occupational health was made by....

Hippocrates

11

Hippocrates and occupational health

-recognized clusters of specific disease that were more prevalent in craftsmen
-400 bc

12

Plinny the Elder

-23-79 ad
-observed ancient miners wearing protective breathing devices to avoid inhaling toxic dusts and vapors

13

Much work in the Middle Ages occurred

In homes and small shops

14

Profitable work in the Middle Ages

-consisted primarily of crafts and arts
-used various metals, chemicals and minerals
-was accompanied by observed adverse health effects
-increased competition resulted in increased production and escalating work hazards

15

Location of manufacturing in the Middle Ages

-most was conducted in rural homes
-some occurred in guild shops in towns

16

Notable commentaries on occupational health and safety in the pre-industrial era

1. Georgius Agricola
2. Paracelsus
3. Bernardino Ramazzini

17

Georgius Agricola

-1494-1555
-described the ailments of miners

18

Ailments of miners described by Georgius Agricola

Joint, lung and eye problems

19

Paracelsus

-1493-1541
-identified acute and chronic health effects in craftsmen exposed to metal smelting fumes
-articulated the principle paradigm of toxicology, the dose/response ratio

20

Bernardino Ramazzini

-1633-1714
-father of occupational medicine
-published De Morbis Artifactum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen)
-encouraged physicians to inquire into their patients' occupations as part of their assessments

21

De Morbis Artifactum Diatriba (The Disease of Workmen)

-Ramazzini
-1713
-described more than 100 different trade occupations, their associated hazards, and various methods of protection for tradespeople
-included protective clothing, adequate ventilation and proper working posture

22

Major shift in working conditions occurred during...

The Industrial Revolution

23

Shifts in working conditions during the Industrial Revolution

1. Agrarian or home based hand manufacturing to urban based industrial processes
2. Power driven machinery introduced
3. Mass factory production began in England in 1718
4. Machine driven jobs became specialized
5. Work became monotonous
6. Economic and social impact of work related injury, illness and death became evident
7. High rates of factory workers affected

24

American workers during the Industrial Revolution

1. Health and safety profoundly affected
2. Economic focus shifted from agriculture to industry
3. Millions flocked to urban industrial centers
4. Company owned housing districts
5. Massive exploitation of women, children and non-English speaking immigrants
6. Child labor, indentured servitude and slavery were routine

25

Characteristics of company owned housing districts

1. Overcrowded
2. Unsanitary
3. Centers of poverty and communicable disease

26

Trends during the American Industrial Revolution

1. Division of labor
2. Ownership of the means of production
3. Capitalism

27

Workplace mindset during the Industrial Revolution

1. Accidents and workplace deaths are inevitable and acceptable consequences of progress
2. Profit and property rights above human rights

28

Working conditions during the Industrial Revolution

-abysmal
-machines largely without protective devices
-accidental death rates were high

29

Occupational health and safety during the Industrial Revolution

1. Responsibility for work related injuries and illnesses was placed in the worker
2. Services focused on pre-employment physical examinations
3. Prevention strategies aimed at altering worker behavior

30

Primary causes of accidents idenfied during the Industrial Revolution

1. Lack of English language skills
2. Inexperience
3. Worker carelessness

31

Alice Hamilton

-1869-1970
-matriarch if American occupational health
-first American physician to devote life's work to industrial health
-studied and documented adverse human effects associated with occupational exposure to lead, arsenic, carbon monoxide and solvents
-published Industrial Poisons in the United States (1925) and Exploring Dangerous Trades (1943)
-editor of The Journal of Industrial Hygiene

32

Government agencies and legislation focusing on workplace health and safety emerged during....

The industrial revolution

33

Formal workplace regulation began...

-in the textile manufacturing sector
-England

34

Eight Factory Acts were passed:

Between 1802 and 1891

35

Factory Acts aimed at improving conditions for laborers including:

1. Limiting working hours to 12 hours daily
2. Raising minimal age limit for working children from 10 to 11
3. Prohibited employment of pregnant women within one month of delivery
4. Required that workplace injuries and deaths be reported to a surgeon who was to investigate the cause and report result to factory inspector

36

First factory inspection department in the US

Massachusetts, 1867

37

State and federal reporting requirements for industrial accidents began...

Late 1800s

38

Concerns of workers and occupational health and safety professionals have historically and often been misperceived as....

Opposing the concerns of the business sector

39

The first factory inspection department was created in Massachusetts

1867

40

The Bureau of Labor Statistics was established

1869

41

Pennsylvania passed legislation requiring two exits from all mines

1869

42

Employer Liability Law passed

1877

43

Massachusetts passed the first law requiring safeguards for hazardous machinery

1877

44

The Federal Bureau of Labor, reorganized as the United States Department of Labor (USDL) in 1913, was created to foster promote and develop the welfare of wage earners in the US

1884

45

The US Department of Interior created the Bureau of Mines to investigate accidents, examine health hazards and make recommendations for improvement

1907

46

Wisconsin passed the first effective workers' compensation law

1911

47

The US Public Health Service (USPHS) was established to scientifically investigate, and analyze the effects of toxins on individual workers

1912

48

The US Department of Labor was established

1913

49

The National Council of Industrial Safety was organized and renamed two years later as the National Safety Council to collect and document occupational injury and illness data

1913

50

The Office of Worker's Compensation Programs (OWCP) was established for federal employees

1916

51

The New Deal, introduced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, included occupational health reform statutes, and encouraged a renewed advocacy for workplace health and safety-- efforts that had waned in the anti-labor sentiment following World War I

1933

52

The Division of Labor Standards was established to collaborate with other organizations to develop safety codes and standards, disseminate information about chemical hazards to workers, and improve the efficacy of factory inspection processes

1934

53

The Social Security Act was signed into law

1935

54

The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) was enacted to govern relations between workers and management which had, before that time, been confrontational, litigious and sometimes violent

1935

55

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) established the first minimum wage at 25 cents/hour, which was well below what most covered workers already earned; additionally, FLSA initiated the 8 hour workday

1938

56

The Equal Pay Act banned wage discrimination based on gender

1963

57

The Civil Rights Act banned institutional forms of racial discrimination

1964

58

The standard 8-hour workday was federally legislated

1968

59

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) was signed into law and established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as an agency within the USDL and the OSH Act established the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as an institute within USPHS; it is currently positioned within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

1970

60

The Federal Mine Safety Act was passed

1977

61

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) was passed

1986

62

The Community Right-to-Know Act was passed, requiring that the public be made aware of any potentially hazardous materials used by local industries

1986

63

The Amended Clean Air Act of 1970 was passed

1990

64

The Family and Medical Leave Act required covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks unpaid leave and continued medical benefits to eligible employees during any 12 month period

1993

65

Tuberculosis standard was proposed and defeated

1997

66

After a 10 year effort by OSHA and state OSH Administrations, a federal ergonomic standard was released; it was overturned the following year by the president and congress

2000

67

Agriculture was the major US industry

1600s

68

Boston shipyard workers formed the first political organization, called the "Caucus"

1739

69

Trade associations developed among carpenters, tailors and iron workers

1750

70

American and European economies shifted toward a merchant/ capitalist system

1780s

71

Philadelphia printers conducted the first successful strike for higher wages

1786

72

Philadelphia carpenters waged the first strike in the building trades, demanding a 10 hour workday

1791

73

The 10 hour workday was initiated after a general labor strike in Philadelphia the previous year

1836

74

The National Labor Union was established following an economic depression

1866

75

Factory inspection was introduced in Massachusetts

1867

76

The first barrier safeguard patent was awarded

1868

77

The Noble and Holy Knights of Labor, one of the earliest labor unions, which admitted into membership both skilled and unskilled workers of both sexes, was formed and began agitating for workplace safety laws

1869

78

The Colored National Labor Union was formed

1869

79

The Socialist Labor Party established its headquarters in Newark, New Jersey; the party was renamed in 1877 as the Workingman's Party of America

1876

80

The first Labor Day Parade was organized in New York City

1882

81

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was founded

1886

82

The United Mine Workers Union was founded in Ohio

1890

83

The first recorded workplace safety program was established in an Illinois steel plant, in response to a flywheel explosion

1892

84

International Ladies Garment Workers Union was founded, primarily to organize workers at Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

1900

85

The Women's Trade Union League was formed at the AFL convention

1903

86

International Workers of the World (IWW or Wobblies) was founded; it aimed to organize all unions into a labor solidarity in preparation to topple capitalism. IWW is now remembered for organizing women, blacks, new immigrants, and unskilled and migratory laborers, all of whom the AFL had shunned

1905

87

"Uprising of the 20,000"- female shirtwaist makers in New York City strike against sweatshop conditions

1909

88

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City killed 146 workers, trapped by the lack of fire escapes and locked exit doors

1911

89

20% of American workers walked out in a great strike wave, including national clothing, coal and steel workers

1919

90

The nations first African-American union was founded, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; although receiving support from the AFL, the union was opposed by the Pullman Company, and the brotherhood did not receive an international charter until 1936

1925

91

The New Deal was introduced to congress by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy after the Great Depression had increased unemployment by 12 million in three years; millions found employment in federally sponsored works programs

1933

92

The National Labor Relations Act of ---- (Wagner Act) legalized union practices such as collective bargaining and the closed shops, and outlawed certain anti-union practices such as blacklisting

1935

93

The Committee for Industrial Organizations (CIO), at that time a constituency of the AFL, organized strikes in all major industries

1937

94

The Congress of Industrial Organizations was formed as an independent federation

1938

95

The CIO formed the first political action committee to get out the vote for President Roosevelt

1943

96

The Full Employment Act was signed to increase national employment

1946

97

The Labor-Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act), ostensibly enacted to govern relations between workers and management, in fact restricted union behavior and the activities of union members in order to allow commerce to develop

1947

98

The AFL and CIO unified

1955

99

Federal employees gained the right to organize and bargain collectively

1962

100

National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) was formed by Caesar Chavez

1962

101

March on Washington for Jobs and Justice occurred

1963

102

NFWA and the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee merged to form the United Farm Workers (UFW) and became an affiliate of the AFL-CIO

1966

103

End of Kennedy/Johnson era aided development of depressed areas, urban renewal, and anti-discrimination initiatives

1969

104

Rise in debate began over environmental protection vis-à-vis jobs

1960s

105

Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity Acts were signed

1970s

106

The Coalition of Black Trade Unionists was formed

1972

107

The Labor Council for Latin American Advancement was founded

1973

108

The Coalition of Labor Union Women was founded

1974

109

Major industries were deregulated

1980s

110

The Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance was created within the AFL-CIO

1992

111

By the end of the Reagan/Bush era, less than 18% of workers were affiliated with labor unions, compared with half the labor force directly following World War II

1992

112

Technology began to surpass ethical guidelines. For example, inherited conditions may one day bar a choice of occupation; the use of random drug testing in non-safety sensitive occupations raises ethical and privacy questions

1990s

113

Pride At Work, a national coalition of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender workers and their supporters, becomes an AFL-CIO constituency group

1997

114

An estimated 30,000 to 50,000 working-family activists marched in Seattle to tell the World Trade Organization and its allies, "If the global economy doesn't work for working families, it doesn't work."

1997

115

5,000 North Carolina workers gained a union contract after a 25 year struggle

1999

116

As workers began to assert their demands for workplace health and safety reforms.....

Tensions between labor and management increased

117

Early strategies that were effective in improving workplace conditions

1. Labor strikes
2. Lawsuits bought by injured workers against employers

118

Amount of US workforce that were union members in 2003

12.9%

119

Union workers are more likely to be informed about -------- than non-union workers

The presence of health and safety hazards

120

Successful campaigns conducted by labor unions:

1. 8 hour work day
2. Overtime compensation
3. Employer paid health insurance for industrial workers
4. Regulations aimed at protecting farm and field workers against dangers of pesticide exposure
5. OSHA's Cotton Dust Standard of 1978
6. OSHA's Occupational Tuberculosis Standard
7. New enforcement policy regarding respiratory protection in 2004
8. Defeat of legislation that would give president ability to "fast track" trade legislation without assured protection of workers rights and the environment in 1997

121

Union sponsored regulations aimed at protecting farm and field workers against the dangers of pesticide exposure

1. Lengthening re-entry periods beyond state and federal standards
2. Requiring testing of farm workers on a regular basis to monitor exposure levels
3. Restricting the use of dangerous pesticides

122

-------- and ------- have had an important influence on workplace health and safety over the years

Public pressure
Social activism

123

Social conditions that led to mid-19th century factory reform Nd inspection legislation, including provisions for working hours and minimum age for child employment

Increasing societal intolerance of the exploitation and abuse of women and children

124

Workplace disasters that have provided the impetus for general and specific changes on workplace safety regulations

1. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911
2. West Virginia mining accident in 1968

125

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

- 1911
- killed 146 workers
- trapped by lack of fire escapes and management locking doors to keep employees for leaving for breaks
-public pressure caused New York legislature to yield and improve industrial working conditions
-caused tougher municipal building codes and more stringent factory inspections

126

Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 and relation to public opinion

-public outrage after mining accident in West Virginia in 1968 contributed to

127

Social activism in the 1960s raised awareness of the link between....

Environmental and occupational health concerns and work processes

128

Silent Spring effect on occupational and environmental health

Directed public attention at human health and environmental consequences of certain pesticides, leading to production and usage bans of some products

129

Increased societal awareness of the hazards of chemical exposure has resulted in the development of....

Comprehensive protective interventions aimed at both the workplace in general and the management of manufacturing by-products and waste

130

Aim of environmental impact studies

Protecting both local ecology and the population

131

When are environmental impact studies required?

Before establishing new industrial enterprises

132

Ways that efforts of organized labor have both assisted and been influenced by the concerns for social justice and equality:

1. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters president, A. Philip Randolph led the 1941 March on Washington which led to creation of Fair Employment Practices Committee
2. Civil rights movement in the 1960s raised public awareness of effects of racism and drew national attention to struggles of farm workers in California and eventually nationwide

133

When did a growing wellness/ health promotion movement encourage employers to implement workplace and wellness programs and services?

1970s

134

Goal of wellness programs

1. Reduce costs by enhancing awareness of self care
2. Decreasing absenteeism
3. Improving worker morale
4. Increasing productivity

135

Critics of the wellness/ health promotion movement maintained...

These programs and services shifted blame from the work environment to the individual worker, repeating a trend from earlier years

136

Concerns raised about wellness and health promotion movement

Potential discrimination against populations at risk

1. Smokers
2. Obese workers
3. Hypertensives

137

Before passage of workers' compensation laws, injured workers and the survivors of workers killed on the job could be compensated for their loss or medical cost only through....

Litigation

138

Employers were historically protected from loss claims under three common legal defenses:

1. Assumption of risk
2. Fellow servant rule
3. Contributory negligence

139

Assumption of risk

Defense assumed that workers were aware of occupational hazards and accepted the risk inherent to their jobs

140

Fellow servant rule

Assumed that if a co-worker contributed to an accident or injury, that co-worker should be responsible for compensating the injured worker

141

Contributory negligence

Held that the employer was not liable if the employee contributed in any way to the injury; this defense strategy argued that physical harm would not have come to the worker had he or she been paying attention to the task, overriding the importance of a lack of protective devices

142

Originally workers' compensation legislation was intended to.....

-protect businesses from lengthy litigation
-prevent workers' from becoming wards of the state

143

Workers' compensation laws were first enacted in ------- in -------

Germany
1884

144

Workers' compensation laws were widespread in Europe by.....

The late 1890s

145

In the United States the first workers' compensation law was passed in ----- in ------

Wisconsin
1911

146

Between 1911 and 1921 ---- states enacted workers' compensation laws

25

147

All states now have workers' compensation laws. The last states to enact was ------- in ----

Mississippi
1948

148

For workers' compensation each jurisdiaction has --------- over its own system

Administrative control

149

Elements required of all workers' compensation statutes

1. Negligence or assumption of fault is not material to a claim
2. Benefits are made available by an employers' payment of premium to the established administrative system
3. Workers forfeit their right to sue the employer in exchange for prompt and reasonable compensation

150

In workers' compensation employers lose their immunity from litigation if any of the following conditions are present:

1. An injury is caused by an employer's intentional act
2. The employer is not in compliance with the state workers' compensation regulations
3. Punitive action is taken against the employee in retaliation for filing a claim or otherwise pursuing workers' compensation benefits

151

Two major points underscored by the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970

1. Many occupational hazards are controllable, and their resulting work related injuries and illnesses are preventable
2. Primary responsibility for providing safe and healthful working environments rests with the employer

152

True or false: Individual states may not arrange their own occupational health and safety programs

False

They may with federal approval of state plan

153

Federal approval of state managed occupational health and safety programs is contingent upon

A demonstrated ability to provide the essential elements required by the federal plan

154

---- states currently manage their own OSHA-approved state plans

26

155

The OSH Act of 1970 established three separate bodies with distinct functions:

1. OSHA
2. NIOSH
3. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission

156

OSHA is positioned within

The United States Department of Labor (USDL)

157

Purpose of OSHA

Promulgated, administers and enforces workplace health and safety standards, and establishes reporting and recordkeeping procedures to monitor the number and type of job related injuries and illnesses

158

NIOSH is located in

US Department of Health and Humans Services (DHHS) as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

159

Purpose of NIOSH

Conducts occupational health and safety research, provides education, and makes health and safety recommendations to OSHA and the nation's employers

160

Purpose of Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission

A separate entity independent from OSHA, primarily arbitrates disputes between employers and OSHA regarding citations and proposed fines

161

Healthy People 2010 outlines...

A comprehensive, nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention agenda in 28 public health focus areas

162

Two focus areas of Healthy People 2010 applicable to occupational and environmental health nursing

1. Occupational health and safety
2. Environmental health

163

Healthy People 2010 is designed to achieve two overarching goals:

1. Increase quality and years of healthy life
2. Eliminate health disparities

164

The underlying premise of Healthy People 2010 is that.....

The health of the individual is almost inseparable from the health of the larger community

165

Healthy People 2010 builds on ------- , aiming for ------

Initiatives and objectives pursued over the past two decades

Measurable and achievable public health objectives

166

Interim evaluations in Healthy People 2010 in the occupational and environmental health and safety focus area have and will continue to result in the following:

1. New objectives to address emerging work related concerns
2. Revision, replacement or elimination of objectives that cannot be tracked reliably or have low relative value for monitoring improved outcomes in worker health and safety

167

The Healthy People 2010 goal for chapter 20, Occupational Safety and Health is...

To promote the health and safety of people at work through prevention and early intervention

168

The Healthy People 2010 goal for chapter 8, Environmental Health

To promote health for all through a healthy environment

169

Healthy Communities 2000: Model Standards was developed to

Help implement national health objectives for community populations, including working populations, by providing a "framework for incremental improvement in community health status through preventive health service programming"

170

Healthy People 2010 topics addressed in Occupational Safety and Health chapter

1. Work related injury deaths
2. Work related injuries
3. Overexertion or repetitive motion
4. Pneumoconiosis deaths
5. Work related homicides
6. Work related assaults
7. Elevated blood lead levels from work exposure
8. Occupational skin diseases and disorders
9. Worksite stress reduction programs
10. Needlestick injuries
11. Work related noise induced hearing loss

171

Healthy People 2010 topics addressed in Environmental Health chapter

1. Outdoor air quality
2. Water quality
3. Toxins and waste
4. Healthy homes and healthy communities
5. Infrastructure and surveillance
6. Global environmental health

172

Types of challenges faced by occupational health and safety programs and services in developing countries:

1. Societal
2. Cultural
3. Political

173

Occupational health and safety and services in developing countries face many societal, cultural and political challenges including the following:

1. Poor general working conditions
2. Substandard wages
3. Lack of political commitment; corruption on many levels
4. Lack of awareness among the working population of both their hazardous occupational exposures and their rights as workers to safe working conditions
5. Inadequate workers' compensation, or no workers' compensation at all
6. Inadequate health and safety legislation; non-enforcement of existing laws
7. Exploitation of labor force, including child labor
8. Lack of regulation related to environmental pollution and degradation
9. Inadequate supply of occupational health and safety expertise
10. Hazardous industries, operations, equipment, machinery and products often imported from developed countries where they may be banned

174

International organizations committed to occupational health and safety

1. The World Health Organization (WHO)
2. The International Labor Organization (ILO)
3. The European Commission
4. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH)

175

WHO was established in....

1948

176

Why was WHO established?

To promote international cooperation to improve health conditions

177

Purpose of WHO

To promote the attainment of the highest level of health by all people in the world

178

Following -----------, WHO developed a global strategy on occupational health

The 1994 Declaration on Occupational Health for All

179

In 1990, WHO created a global network of....

Occupational Health Collaborating Centers

180

The ILO was established in....

1919

181

Why was ILO established?

To protect the life and health of working men and women and to control occupational hazards

182

ILO's services include:

1. Policy and advisory guidance through it's International Program for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment
2. Provision of information through its International Occupational Safety and Health Center in Geneva, Switzerland (known as CIS)

183

The European Comission

Has developed directives aimed at harmonizing occupational health and safety laws in European Union Members

184

ICOH was established in

1906

185

ICOH is recognized by the United Nations as a.....

Nongovernmental organization

186

Purpose of ICOH

To foster the scientific progress, knowledge and development of occupational health in the international community

187

ICOH has a close working relationship with:

1. WHO
2. ILO
3. Other United Nations agencies

188

Since 1969, ICOH's Scientifc Committee on Occupational Health Nursing has produced...

9 reports for occupational health nurses internationally

189

The trend towards globalization of trade, while economically beneficial, is.....

Introducing a host of occupational hazards to developing countries

190

---- of the global workforce lives in developing countries where the ------ and -------- ------ is lacking to protect workers from occupational hazards

75%
Technical and social infrastructure

191

The ILO estimates that the overall economic losses resulting from work related diseases and injuries are approximately 4% of.....

The World's gross national product

192

The nature of occupational hazards can be broadly categorized as:

1. Physical hazards
2. Chemical hazard
3. Biological hazards
4. Mechanical hazards
5. Psychosocial hazards

193

Physical hazards

Agents or forces inherent to the nature of a work environment or process that may cause tissue damage or other physical harm

194

Examples of physical hazards

1. Environmental noise contamination
2. Thermal stress
3. Sustained or repeated body contact with vibrating surfaces
4. Ionizing radiation
5. Non-ionizing radiation
6. Electric and magnetic fields
7. Hyperbaric environments
8. Lasers

195

----------- is the single most prevalent occupational hazard

Environmental noise contamination

196

Each year more than -------- workers are exposed to continuous or impulse noise at levels sufficient to cause measurable hearing loss

30 million

197

Environmental noise contamination can elicit...

Physiologic and psychologic stress reactions resulting in neuro-endocrine stimulation capable of adversely affecting multiple body systems

198

Thermal stress

Experienced by workers working in conditions of excessive heat or cold

199

Thermal stress can lead to....

Multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances, central and peripheral neurological alterations, and mental status changes resulting in impaired judgement and performance and increased risk of accidents

200

Sustained or repeated body contact with vibrating surfaces has been associated with....

Neurologic, neurovascular, and musculoskeletal changes and visual and gastrointestinal disorders

201

Examples of ionizing radiation

1. Isotopes
2. X-rays
3. Radium

202

Examples of non-ionizing radiation

1. Welding flash
2. Ultraviolet rays
3. Microwaves
4. Sunburn

203

The American National Standards Institute classifies chemicals as:

1. Dusts/particulates
2. Fumes
3. Mists
4. Vapors
5. Gases

204

Chemical formulations include

1. Solutions
2. Metals
3. Solvents
4. Aerosols
5. Pharmaceuticals
6. Oils
7. Synthetic textiles
8. Pesticides
9. Explosives

205

Commercial products are often formulated with --------- and ---------- which may themselves be toxic

Various additives

Stabilizers

206

An estimated -------- workers are annually exposed to one or more chemical hazards that may cause, contribute to, or exacerbate serious adverse health effects

32 million

207

NIOSH has identified ------- toxic substances and ------ carcinogens that pose threats to human health in the workplace

13,000

2,000

208

Regulation of safe exposure limits for chemical substances requires.....

Clear scientific evidence of pathologic effects

209

The burden of proof for regulation of safe exposure limits lies with....

OSHA, which relies on evidence from NIOSH and other research entities

210

Primary routes of chemical exposure are:

1. Inhalation
2. Transdermal absorption
3. Ingestion

211

Deleterious effects from chemical exposure range from...

Local reactions to systemic and end-organ damage

212

Acute effects of chemical exposure

Usually linked to a single high dose incident with an identifiable offending substance

213

Chronic effects from chemical exposure

Evolve insidiously, presenting multiple challenges in establishing causal relationships to exposure

214

Allergic reactions from chemical exposure

Not consistent with the usual population dose-response curve

215

Biologic hazards found in the work environment include:

1. Viruses
2. Bacteria
3. Fungi
4. Molds
5. Parasites

216

Exposure to biologic agents can be ------- or --------

Direct

Indirect

217

Three routes of transmission for biologic hazards

1. Airborne
2. Droplet
3. Contact

218

Examples of occupations who are exposed to biologic hazards

1. Healthcare workers
2. Workers who work with animals or animal products
3. Workers whose jobs involve contact with soil

219

Workers who have contact with animals or animal products may be at risk for....

Zoonotic diseases

220

Workers whose jobs involve contact with soil are at risk for....

Parasitic diseases and bacterial or fungal infections

221

Prevention and control methods related to biohazard include....

1. Immunization
2. Isolation of the agent
3. Engineering control measures (effective ventilation mechanics)
4. Personal protective gear
5. Hand washing

222

Challenges to prevention and control of biological hazards include:

1. Emerging infectious agents
2. The potential that terrorists ,at release biohazards in the workplace
3. Drug resistance and organism mutation because of overuse of antibiotics and lapses in treatment regimens

223

Since 1980 there have been more than ---- new infectious processes identified

30

224

Examples of emerging diseases since 1980

1. Lyme disease
2. Legionnaire's disease
3. HIV/AIDS
4. Necrotizing fasciitis
5. Avian influenza
6. Hantavirus
7. Ebola

225

Mechanical hazards

Elements of the workplace that lead to stress or injury through an incompatibility between the design of the workplace or work processes and human physiology

226

Biomechanical hazards

They represent not only an interface between equipment and humans, but also the physiologic mechanics required to perform work duties

227

Major effects of mechanical and biomechanical hazards

Mainly the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous system, but other systems may be affected as well

228

The identification, analysis and abatement of biomechanical hazards are often a function of....

Applied ergonomics

229

Effects of biomechanical stresses can be.....

Temporary or result in permanent disability

230

Acute effects of biomechanical stresses

1. Musculoskeletal injuries
2. Muscular strain or fatigue
3. Visual fatigue

231

Musculoskeletal injuries related to biomechanical hazard soften result from:

1. Overexertion
2. Slips
3. Falls
4. Other accidents

232

Muscle strain or fatigue related to biomechanical hazards are often caused by:

1. Forceful exertion
2. Awkward positioning

233

Chronic effects of biomechanical hazards include:

1. Raynaud's syndrome
2. Cumulative trauma injuries stemming from repeated or sustained motions resulting in neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
3. Chronic back pain

234

Raynaud's syndrome can result from

Use of vibrating tools

235

Chronic back pain can result from....

Improper lifting or awkward, abrupt movements

236

Prevention and control of biomechanical pathologies is best achieved through....

Engineering designs that focus on manipulating elements of the work facilities and processes to accommodate the characteristics, capabilities and expectations of the worker

237

ILO reports that more than ----- of workers in industrialized countries complain of job related stress and its adverse consequences

50%

238

Psychosocial hazards are often difficult to identify and even more difficult to quantify because of...

Their intangible and insidious nature and the variable responses among individuals

239

Workplace psychosocial distress stems from.....

Multiple sources internal and external to the organization

240

Psychosocial stress hazards may be manifested:

1. Physically
2. Psychologically
3. Behaviorally

241

Outcomes of psychosocial stress hazards may be detrimental to.....

1. Individual
2. Co-workers
3. General workplace morale
4. Productivity

242

The economic implications of psychosocial stress hazards include:

1. Lost productivity
2. Costs related to medical benefits
3. Temporary help
4. Employee turnover
5. Losses related to the impact of stressed employees on customer relations

243

Psychosocial hazards may be symptomatic of...

Widespread organizational problems rather than isolated incidents, indicating a need for systemic solutions

244

Mission of occupational health and safet

To assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions

Decks in ► Med Misc 57 Class (49):