Flashcards in Oct 25 Deck (24):
Who proposed the central dogma?
Compartmentalization increases the concentration of replicated molecules
The evolution of metabolism was incomplete because of what?
Absence of O2
What cellular feature evolved to produce energy while maintaining internal pH?
What is a harmful byproduct of metabolism?
Depletion of organic nutrients in the aqueous environment led to use of what molecule in metabolism?
Membrane-bound NADH dehydrogenase complexes that could exploit energy from sunlight (photochemical reaction centers) likely evolved in ancestors of...
green sulfur bacteria
What collect light energy and transfer it to reaction centers?
Cyanobacteria have two photosystems (PSI and PSII) to obtain electron from what molecule?
Photosynthesis led to what?
increase in oxygen biomass
Oxygen levels increased from < 1 billion years?
What were the consequences of increased aerobicity?
1) free radicals
2) death of anaerobes
3) large amounts of biomass
4) various metabolic pathways
Increased aerobicity led to the emergence of what type of bacteria?
The increase in free radicals led to what?
evolution of catalase and superoxide dismutase
What is the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryote evolution?
ancient archaea or bacterium engulfed but not consumed-->organelles
Which organelles have their own genomes?
mitochondria and plastids
Ribosomal RNA is most similar to...
Mitochondria and plastids are believed to come from...
How do aerotolerant anaerobes deal w/ free radicals?
encode catalase and superoxide dismutase
What are 2 theories about the origin of the nucleus?
1) from archaea post-acquisition of organelles
2) horizontal transfer of genes between nucleus and mitochondria and/or plastids
Many insects harbor bacterial symbionts intracellularly
Bacterial symbionts have (large/small) genomes
What is a phenomenon of bacterial symbionts?
speciate w/ hosts