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GastroIntestinal (GI) > Oesophagitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oesophagitis Deck (22):
1

What lining does a normal oesophagus have?

Stratified squamous epithelium

2

What are the causes of acute oesopagitis?

Corrosive chemical ingestion - leads to stricture
Infective
(Acute oesophagi's is rare)

3

What are the causes of chronic oesophagitis?

GORD
Crohn's

4

What are the causes of reflux oesopagitis?

Inflammation of oesophagus due to refluxed low pH gastric content

May be due to defective sphincter mechanism +/- Hiatus hernia

Abnormal oesophageal motility

Increased intra-abdominal pressure (pregnancy)

5

What is the appearance of oesophagitis?

Red ulcerated surface

Histologically: Acute Inflammation, cellular infiltrate.

6

What are the histological signs of reflux oesophagitis?

Basal zone epithelial expansion
Intraepithelial infiltrate

7

What are the complications of reflux?

Ulceration
Stricture - due to chronic fibrosis and scaring
Barret's Oesophagus

8

What barrett's oesophagus?

Metaplasia - Change of the cells from squamous cells to columnar cells.
Due to persistent reflux of acid or bile
Increased risk of dysplasia
Appearance of a red velvety surface

9

What is allergic Oesophagitis?

It is eosinophilic oesophagitis
Chronic inflammation in oesophagus due to allergy.

10

What is the appearance of allergic oesopagitis?

Formation of ridges in the oesophagus

Histologically, there is a large number of intraepithelial eosinophils

11

What is the treatment of allergic oesophagitis?

Steroids
Chromoglycate
Montelukast

12

What is the name given to a benign oesophageal tumour?

Squamous Papilloma

This is asymptotic
HPV related - human papilloma virus

13

What are the malignant oesophageal tumours?

Squamous cell carcinoma - histologically produces little keratin pearls
Adenocarcinoma

14

What conditions may cause squamous cell carcinoma?

Vitamin A, Zinc deficiency

Tannic acid/ Strong tea

Smoking, Alcohol

HPV - human papilloma virus

Oesophagitis

15

What symptoms may be related to squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinoma?

Produces a neoplastic stricture

Symptom: Dysphagia

16

What conditions predisposes you to adenocarcinoma?

Barret's Oesophagus

17

How does carcinoma of the oesophagus kill?

Direct invasion
Lymphathic permeation
Vascular invasion

18

What is Schatzki ring?

Narrowing in the lower oesophagus - overgrowth of mucosal tissue

It can cause dysphagia

19

What is the oesphageal diverticulum?

This is an out-pouching of the oesophagus. This can become inflamed

20

What is a diverticulum?

An outpouching of a hollow structure of the body.

21

What is bulbar palsy?

Bulbar palsy refers to impairment of function of the cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII, which occurs due to a lower motor neuron lesion either at nuclear or fascicular level in the medulla oblongata or from lesions of the lower cranial nerves outside the brainstem.
Can cause Dysphagia

22

What symptoms are related to eosinophilic oesophagitis?

Heart burn