Flashcards in Oesophagitis Deck (22):
What lining does a normal oesophagus have?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What are the causes of acute oesopagitis?
Corrosive chemical ingestion - leads to stricture
(Acute oesophagi's is rare)
What are the causes of chronic oesophagitis?
What are the causes of reflux oesopagitis?
Inflammation of oesophagus due to refluxed low pH gastric content
May be due to defective sphincter mechanism +/- Hiatus hernia
Abnormal oesophageal motility
Increased intra-abdominal pressure (pregnancy)
What is the appearance of oesophagitis?
Red ulcerated surface
Histologically: Acute Inflammation, cellular infiltrate.
What are the histological signs of reflux oesophagitis?
Basal zone epithelial expansion
What are the complications of reflux?
Stricture - due to chronic fibrosis and scaring
What barrett's oesophagus?
Metaplasia - Change of the cells from squamous cells to columnar cells.
Due to persistent reflux of acid or bile
Increased risk of dysplasia
Appearance of a red velvety surface
What is allergic Oesophagitis?
It is eosinophilic oesophagitis
Chronic inflammation in oesophagus due to allergy.
What is the appearance of allergic oesopagitis?
Formation of ridges in the oesophagus
Histologically, there is a large number of intraepithelial eosinophils
What is the treatment of allergic oesophagitis?
What is the name given to a benign oesophageal tumour?
This is asymptotic
HPV related - human papilloma virus
What are the malignant oesophageal tumours?
Squamous cell carcinoma - histologically produces little keratin pearls
What conditions may cause squamous cell carcinoma?
Vitamin A, Zinc deficiency
Tannic acid/ Strong tea
HPV - human papilloma virus
What symptoms may be related to squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinoma?
Produces a neoplastic stricture
What conditions predisposes you to adenocarcinoma?
How does carcinoma of the oesophagus kill?
What is Schatzki ring?
Narrowing in the lower oesophagus - overgrowth of mucosal tissue
It can cause dysphagia
What is the oesphageal diverticulum?
This is an out-pouching of the oesophagus. This can become inflamed
What is a diverticulum?
An outpouching of a hollow structure of the body.
What is bulbar palsy?
Bulbar palsy refers to impairment of function of the cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII, which occurs due to a lower motor neuron lesion either at nuclear or fascicular level in the medulla oblongata or from lesions of the lower cranial nerves outside the brainstem.
Can cause Dysphagia