Flashcards in Official study guide for exam 1 Deck (50):
What are the reasons why you should understand research and statistics?
1. answering questions and making decisions
2. we encounter research everyday
3. common sense is often wrong
Psychologists in which area concentrate on workplace design, man-machine interaction, and physical fatigue?
I/O psychologists who are involved in which area study and practice in such areas as employee selection, job analysis, and job evaluation?
conducting a literature review means what?
1. written sources (journals, books)
2. electronic sources (PsychINFO, Infotrac)
3. the internet
finding similar previous research; seeing if similar research has been done
Researchers at IBM think that employees who get to choose their own working hours will be more satisfied than those who do not. To test this idea, IBM employees at the Dallas facility are told that they can choose their own hours. Six months later, the satisfaction level of employees in the Dallas facility is compared to employees in the Knoxville facility. The employees in the Knoxville facility are considered what?
Which research method is used even though it lacks the criteria or characteristics of experiments; this research method is used instead if the experimental method due to what type concerns?
quasi experiment; used when experiments are not practical or when manipulating a variable may not be ethical
A sample in which every member of the relevant population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in the study is referred to as what; other possible causes that can often explain the relationship between two other variables are referred to as what?
random; extraneous/intervening variables
A researcher finds a strong correlation between job satisfaction and performance. What can he conclude from this correlation?
satisfaction and performance are related
Job analysis can serve as a foundation for what?
selecting employees, training employees, and evaluating employee performance
all of the above
Which practical use and importance of a job analysis allows for an analysis to be done at the organizational level?
What are the methods of conducting a job analysis?
1. identify the tasks performed
2. write tasks statements
3. rate tasks statements
4. determine essential KSAOs
5. Select tests to tap KSAOs
What important piece of information that is obtained from a job analysis enables professionals to categorize jobs into groups based on similarities in requirements and duties?
What type of information from a job analysis can be used to determine worker mobility?
The first step in conducting a job analysis is what?
identify tasks performed
What is a body of information needed to perform a task known as?
What is the proficiency to perform a learned task known as?
What are the required elements to a task statement?
action and object
If a law is passed at the federal level, states may pass laws that do what to the rights granted in the federal law, states may not pass laws that will do what to the rights granted in the federal law.
A judicial interpretation of a law is important because it establishes a precedent for future cases; the judicial interpretation of a law is referred to as what?
In the 1989 case of Walker v. Secretary of the Treasury, a district court found that a darker skinned black illegally fired a lighter skinned black employee. What protected class was at issue in this case?
In determining if an employment decision is legal, the first question to ask is does the employment practice directly refer to a member of a federally protected class? What are the different federally protected classes?
race, color, sex, national origin, age, religion, disability, pregnant females, qualified veterans
What are the important factors/criteria in filing a complaint of age discrimination?
over the age of 40, has been discharged or demoted, was performing the job adequately at the time of discharge or demotion, has been replaced by a younger worker, even if over 40
What are the exceptions to the requirement of determining that an employment practice is exempted or job related?
exemptions: Bona fide seniority system, veteran's preference rights, national security
job related: BFOQ, valid testing procedure
Asking a coworker out on a date is sexual harassment if what criteria are met?
if the coworker continually engages in conduct; if it is unwanted, is negative to the "reasonable person", affects a term, condition, or privilege of employment
Allowing employees to do what removes the right of the organization to search the lockers?
place their own locks on lockers
I/O Psychology is a branch of psychology that does or entails what in the workplace?
applies the principles of psychology
The variable that we expect to change as a result of our manipulation is called what?
What is an educated prediction or well thought-out suggestions or ideas about the answer to a research question called?
Psychologists involved in which area study leadership, job satisfaction, and employee motivation?
With respect to validity considerations; field research gains in what, while laboratory research gains in what?
field research gains in external validity(generalizability)
and lab research gains in internal validity(control)
Which of the research methods can determine a cause and effect relationship?
Which research method would I be using if I am going through my employee files to determine what type of person makes the best employee?
archival research method
What aspect of the correlation coefficient indicates magnitude/ strength? Please be able to select the correlation coefficient that represents the strongest correlation.
number= magnitude and strength
0.00 to +/- 1.00
The gathering, analyzing, and structuring of information about a job’s components, characteristics, and requirements is a process called what?
What term is associated with the process of determining the work activities and requirements, and what term is associated with the brief written summary of the tasks and job requirements?
job analysis and job descriptions
A job analysis can be conducted by whom?
internal task force
What step follows after task statements have been written?
rate tasks statements
What type of information from a job analysis can be used to determine the worth of a job?
Which decision(s) must be made in preparation for a job analysis?
1. who will conduct the job analysis
2. which employees should participate
3. what type of information should be gathered
The personal factors and tangible factors deemed necessary to perform tasks are known as what?
A basic capacity for performing a wide range of different tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill is known as what?
Research shows which scales are necessary to rate task statements?
frequency and importance
The first step in the legal process is for some legislative body to do what?
pass a law
When the courts make a decision, the decision becomes what?
Based on the Civil Rights Acts of 1866, 1964, and 1991 as well as the 14th Amendment, it is illegal to discriminate against a person based on race. According to Congress, what are the protected races?
It is illegal to use an individual's religion in an employment decision unless the nature of the job involves what?
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) forbids an employer from discriminating against an individual over what age?
If a job can only be performed by a person in a particular class, the requirement is considered a what?
bona fide occupational qualification
In a quid pro quo case of sexual harassment, how many sexual advance(s) must have been made?