Flashcards in Oncology Deck (27):
worsened over the past 6 months
40 pack year smoker
digital clubbing (hypertrophic osteoarthropathy)
with paraneoplastic syndrome
what are the 2 main morphologic forms of this condition?
small cell lung cancer
non small cell lung cancer
most significant risk factor for the development of this condition?
next step in management upon PE?
why gynecomastia, clubbing and acanthosis nigricans?
manifest with acanthosis nigricans (2)
most appropriate diagnostic test after imaging studies?
if CXR = centrally located lung mass, considerations? (2)
Small cell lung cancer
Squamous cell lung cancer
Sentral, Small, Squamous
differentiate based on their paraneoplastic syndromes:
small cell ca?
squamous cell ca?
small cell ca: ectopic cushing syndrome, SIADH, Lambert-Eaton myasthenia
squamous cell ca: hypercalcemia, clubbing, gynecomastia
most appropriate treatment?
chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy
Pancoast tumor leading to Horner syndrome, airway obstruction, hoarseness
poor --- five year survival rate of 10%
blood mixed in the stool
decreased stool caliber
crampy abdominal pain and weight loss
bleeding colorectal mass causing obstruction
appropriate screening tests for those at risk?
Sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
Colonoscopy every 10 years
what is FAP?
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Familial colon cancer syndrome associated with mutation of the APC gene
APC gene = adenomatous polyposis colon gene
How is FAP diagnosed?
visualizing = 100 polyps during colonoscopy
What is Gardner Syndrome?
FAP plus extraintestinal tumors such as osteomas, nasopharyngeal fibroma, lipoma
What is Turcot Syndrome?
FAP plus brain tumors (medulloblastoma), cafe au lait spots and basal cell cancer
remember: Turcot = "turban like" = brain
What is Peutz Jegher's Syndrome?
Hyperpigmented spots on lips or buccal mucosa and hamartomatous polyps (not premalignant)
What is Lynch Syndrome?
Hereditay non polyposis cancer (HNPC) due to defective mismatch repair genes
(colon ca + endometrial ca)
differentiate left sided and right sided colon cancer --- as to presentation?
RIGHT: fatigue and weakness due to iron deficiency anemia
LEFT: occult bleeding, changes in bowel habits, or cramping, left lower quadrant discomfort
most important risk factor?
Dietary habits (low fiber, high refined CHO/fat)
most important prognostic factors?
depth of invasion
presence or absence lymph node metastasis
localized disease: surgery
metastatic disease: chemotherapy
most common site of metastasis?