OnlineMedEd: Nephrology - "Acute Kidney Injury" Flashcards Preview

Adult Ambulatory Care / Rural & Community Care > OnlineMedEd: Nephrology - "Acute Kidney Injury" > Flashcards

Flashcards in OnlineMedEd: Nephrology - "Acute Kidney Injury" Deck (13):
1

List the four categories of prerenal AKI.

• Heart failure (MI, CHF)
• Hypovolemia (diuresis, diarrhea, dehydration, hemorrhage)
• Interstitial edema (nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, gastrosis)
• Renal artery obstruction (renal artery stenosis, fibromuscular dysplasia)

2

Post-renal AKI can be caused by _______________.

any type of obstruction: urethral (prostate, stricture, stone), bladder (neurogenic, cancer) or ureteral (UVJO, URPJO, cancer, stone)

3

Review the three types of renal AKI.

• Glomerulonephritis
• Acute interstitial nephritis
• Acute tubular necrosis

4

Review the classic triad of nephrotic syndrome.

• Edema
• Proteinuria (greater than 3 g/dL/day)
• Hyperlipidemia

5

Which three medicines are common causes of acute interstitial nephritis?

• Penicillins
• Bactrim
• Cephalosporins

6

Look for what three lab findings in acute interstitial nephritis?

• WBC casts in urine
• WBCs in urine
• Eosinophils in urine

7

Acute tubular necrosis is caused by what three things?

• Ischemia
• Toxins (contrast, myoglobin)

8

FENa is low (less than 1%) in which kind of AKI?

Prerenal

The kidneys absorb sodium when fluids are low.

9

Labs that suggest prerenal AKI include _________________.

BUN:Cr greater than 20, FENa less than 1%, FEUrea less than 35%, and urinary sodium less than 10

10

Discuss how post-renal AKI is diagnosed.

If the history and labs don't point to pre-renal AKI, then you do an US or CT to look for urinary obstruction.

11

Intrarenal AKI can only be definitively diagnosed with ________________.

biopsy

However, if the history, physical, and UA are consistent with one diagnosis, it's reasonable to avoid the biopsy (to spare the risk).

12

How is post-renal AKI treated?

Catheterization, nephrostomy, or surgery to relieve the obstruction

13

Review the indications for acute hemodialysis.

AEIOU
• Acidosis
• Electrolyte disturbances (particularly K and Ca)
• Intoxication (with a substance that can be dialyzed, like lithium)
• Overload
• Uremia

Decks in Adult Ambulatory Care / Rural & Community Care Class (55):