Operant conditioning: elements (reinforcement and punishment) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Operant conditioning: elements (reinforcement and punishment) Deck (22):
1

What are the key elements of operant conditioning?

The consequences (reinforcement and punishment).

2

Define: reinforcement

results when a stimulus (object or event) strengthens or increases the likelihood of a response that it follows.

3

Define: reinforcer

the stimulus (object or event) that strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

4

How is a reinforcer similar to and different to a reward?

Similar: the stimulus is pleasant
Different: rewards do not necessarily strengthen the behaviour.

5

Define: positive reinforcement

the process of presenting a pleasant stimulus (positive reinforcer) after the desired response has been made, which strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

6

Define: positive reinforcer

the actual pleasant stimulus (object or event) which strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response that follows

7

positive reinforcer in Skinner's experiment?

the food pellet, which was given when the lever was pressed

8

Define: negative reinforcement

the process of removing/avoiding an unpleasant stimulus (negative reinforcer), which strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

9

Define: negative reinforcer

the actual unpleasant stimulus that when removed/avoided, strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

10

What was the negative reinforcer in Skinner's experiments?

The electric shock, which was removed by pressing the lever.

11

Define: punishment

results when a stimulus weakens or decreases the likelihood of a response that it follows.

12

Define: punisher

the stimulus that weakens or decreases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

13

Define: positive punishment

the process of presenting an unpleasant stimulus (positive punisher), which weakens or decreases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

14

Define: positive punisher

the actual unpleasant stimulus which weakens or decreases the likelihood of the response that follows.

15

What was the positive punisher in Skinner's experiments?

The electric shock, which was delivered when the lever was pressed

16

Define: negative punishment

the process of removing a pleasant stimulus (negative punisher) which weakens or decreases the likelihood of the response that it follows.

17

Define: negative punisher

the actual pleasant stimulus that, when removed, weakens or decreases the likelihood of the response that follows.

18

What was the negative punisher also known as in Skinner's experiment?

The food pellet, which was removed when the lever was pressed

19

What is negative punishment also referred to as?

response cost

20

Define: response cost

involves removal of any valued stimulus (object or event), whether it causes the response or not.

21

Example of response cost

a fine removes the valued stimulus of money, even though money didn’t cause the response of speeding.

22

According to Skinner, is reinforcement or punishment more effective in achieving desired behaviours and why?

Reinforcement, because it promotes and strengthens the desired behaviour.
Punishment does not promote a more desirable behaviour.